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Yesterday (Iyye)
Preface and Introductions
Abdul Hakeem Hussein Manik
10 August 1997
translated by Fareesha Abdulla with assistance from Majid Abdul-Wahhab and Michael O'Shea
Notes from U.K. Public Records Office added by Maldives Culture
Photographs and graphics below have been added by Maldives Culture from various sources.
2005



Iyye

Editor/owner: Abdul Hakeem Hussein Manik
Office: Everglory house, Machangolhi ward

Hakeem's Notes
  young mohamed ameen didi, future dictator and president of maldives
Mohamed Ameen Didi


This journal contains the political, economic and social history of two respected leaders, Mohamed Ameen and Ibrahim Nasir, and also the history of the Huraage family and other leaders as well.

No doubt there will be things with which writers and readers will agree and disagree at an intellectual level. Anyone who is critical of this journal may, in the spirit of intellectual criticism, write a rebuttal and that will be sufficient.

Salman Rushdie wrote a book that angered Muslims because it contained completely false information and it was published.

Iran's leader, Ayatollah Khomeini made a public offer of a reward for killing Rushdie. At that time, we heard on the radio our respected president Maumoon Abdul Gayyoom saying, 'We do not support the killing of Salman Rushdie. A book should be written in rebuttal.'

This is good advice from the president, and it is the best practice to adopt in writing and literature. It is a peaceful process, and the way of numerous intellectuals.

ibrahim nasir, second president of maldives
Ibrahim Nasir


 
I was encouraged and compelled to write this journal called Iyye (Yesterday) after what was written by the Honourable Al-Usthaz Ibrahim Shihab about the history of Maldives rulers in King Mohamed Fareed I, the twenty-sixth in a series of publications by the National Council of Linguistic and Historical Research. I know what is written in that book is not true.

In Shihab's book, the many achievements of a great Maldive leader were completely ignored. Young Maldivians under the age of thirty are being misinformed. I embark on this work to clear away a tangle of obfuscation.

According to Shihab in a previous piece of writing, 'Nasir is a leader whose name must be in the list with Ghazi Bandarain and Dhon Bandarain.'

I think this issue is best settled by placing Ghazi Bandarain (Mohamed Bodu Takurufan) at the top of the list, then Nasir, and then Dhon Bandarain (Ghazi Hassan Izudeen).

Denial of Education
Sultan Ghazi Hassan Izudeen Dhon Bandarain became king in 1759 A.D. after the death of Mukarram Mohamed Imadudeen in Minicoy was confirmed. The Maldivians had a special affection for the new king. This was because of the brave jihad he conducted. He had the power to make any changes he wanted in Maldives. However, he did not provide an education system, neither at the local nor government level. It was the time of the French Revolution (1789) when the grand spirit of learning was spreading all over the world.

When Nasir became Prime Minister on 11 December 1957, nearly two centuries later, Maldivians were still largely unaware of literacy and mathematics. They were an ignorant, silly and stupid people. Since the death of Dhon Bandarain, the way to control the throne of Male' had been through corrupt, dirty, ruthless infighting. This style of politics intensified as time went on.

From the moment Nasir became leader, he embarked upon a plan to provide English education at a level as high as anywhere in the world.

Maldives Male' street scene, early twentieth century
Male' street scene, early twentieth century


When Mohamed Ameen returned to Maldives after completing his schooling, I was 15 years old and I happened to be a very close to him because his first wife, Fathmath Saeed, was the surviving eldest daughter of Hussein Salahudeen and his wife, Medhu Ganduvaru Tutu Goma.

Salahudeen and Goma were virtually my mother and father, even though I was not born to them. Salahudeen bought books, pens and pencils for me to attend to school, and he was registered at the school as my guardian. He sent me to Kamaru Ali's shop with Marukabu Ali Kaleyfaan. I won't write at length about the reasons for this but mention it briefly.

  abdul majeed didi, dictator and later elected sultan/king of maldives
Abdul Majeed Didi, described as 'Satan' by Abdul Hakeem Hussein Manik


At the time the most influential member of Huraage family, who were historically antagonistic to the thought of any Maldivian being educated, was Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. He had become a 'satan' and corrupted my honourable father's mind. Father used to get Abdul Majeed's advice in all matters. When Majeed was asked for his views on my education he apparently told my father that anyone who enrolled in a school would be unable to live in an Islamic way, and would even urinate while standing.

When Salahudeen became my mentor, I found myself among those who knew about Mohamed Ameen's personal life. Before his marriage, Ameen visited Bageechaage (Salahudeen's house) in the late afternoon for three or four days. At that time, my younger 'brother' Salahuddeen's grandson, Dhon Tuttu Didi, was also staying at Bageechaage. His aunt was Fathmath Saeed.

After the marriage, Athirige Aage became a house that was very close to both me and Mohamed Rasheed (the younger brother of Bageechaage Dhon Tuttu Didi). Ameen Didi was about 8 years older than us. Dhon Tutu Didi was about the same age as me. Therefore I am a person who is able to write with a detailed understanding of Mohamed Ameen.

The two leaders discussed in this journal are Mohamed Ameen and Ibrahim Nasir. With regard to the Martial Law Day of the Borahs and the Motor Boat Revolt created by king Mohamed Shamsudeen, which involved the Sheikh being 'given to havaru (militia mob)', I know all about Mohamed Ameen's involvement in these matters.

During the Motorboat Revolt, I spent the whole day in the royal palace grounds. King Shamsudeen masterminded everything and had Bageechaage house flattened as midday approached on 22 Rajab 1352 (11 November 1933). Shamsuddeen's mother-in-law Velanage Tutu Didi was over 70 years old. She was Tutu Goma's mother. Tutu Goma had two very young children with her, Adnan and Mariyam Didi. Olhitheri Mohamed Rasheed (living close to Bageechaage) was at the scene. He said the two ladies, Tutu Goma and her mother, were sitting at the southern side of the house on a cement seat with the two children on their laps. The mob entered the house, kicking and smashing things. Behaving in a horrific and aggressive manner, they knocked over bookshelves and trampled on the Koranic commentaries. In the large hall known as etherege kolhu, they smashed crystal ornaments into pieces. At this time the currency was quite strong, but the mob managed to cause not less than 10,000 rupees worth of damage to property.


maldives capital male palace and surrounding wards 1922
The Male' palace with surrounding wards partitioned by high walls (in red).
The palace is protected by walls and a moat.From a 1922 map prepared in part by HCP Bell and published originally in 1924, and later included in HCP. Bell's The Maldive Islands 1940
Coloured references added by Maldives Culture



Bodu Fenvalhuge Seedi and Ali Naseer came in through the southern gate with three or four other people carrying a keema ( a small tent for royal women to move through the streets in purdah) . They took the two ladies and the young children to the Kuda Kiba, a residence in the palace grounds.

Around this time I was able to reach Bageechaage where my paternal older brother Hassan Manik hugged me in the courtyard. Dhaharaage had not been been built then, it was just a vacant block of land. I swiftly dragged my older brother towards this area and sat him on a swing-seat and held onto him. My real mother and father were there as well. He let go of me sometime early in the afternoon.

Later, people were taken aboard the motorboat. I ran back to Bageechaage for a quick look and then dashed off to Kuda Kiba. There I met Tutu Goma, Adnan and Mariyam Didi. Dhon Tutu Didi Kokko was also there. Shortly after I saw Mohamed Ameen. The usually elegant Ameen was wearing crumbled and soiled clothes! He took my brother and I away from the others and told us, somewhat rhetorically, that there was no good reason to keep any member of Salahudeen's family at a house (Kuda Kiba) owned by Shamsudeen. I said that Tutu Didi was Doshee Goma's mother and Shamsudeen's mother-in-law too. But I agreed with him.

At that moment, Velanage Mohamed Didi appeared. Ameen Didi called him 'older brother', and when he said he intended to take Salahudeen's wife and two children to his house, Mohamed Didi agreed. The sun was setting and it was getting darker. Ameen, Velanage Mohamed Didi, Bageechaage Dhon Tuttu Didi and I took the mother and two children through the main south gate of Bodu Ganduvaru and we walked to Athireege Aage. Velanage Mohamed Didi and Bageechaage Dhon Tuttu Didi were the full brothers of Fathmath Saeed.

Fortunately, Shihab was studying in Delhi at this time.
Naibge Ahmed Haleem, Abdul Raheem Abdul Majeed and Ahmed Shafeeg who was only just born then, would not be able to write about these events as eyewitnesses.

Mohamed Ameen was a person who did many good things and committed even worse atrocities, and he died at the age of only 46 years. Ibrahim Nasir was a person who did an infinity of good things, and who committed certain atrocities as well before he resigned from the leadership. This is my opinion; from someone who lived through the leadership of both these men.

Things to consider
Nasir reformed the education and training system for Maldivians to an international standard, and after that, there were the huge efforts of President Maumoon Gayoom.

Maldives has progressed incredibly over the last 38 years - twenty years under Nasir and then 18 years under Gayoom. The extent of the change and progress that Maldives has experienced in this time is beyond any comment I can make. So I finish here.




In the Name of Allah, the Merciful and Most Compassionate

Preface


British visit Maldives 1928
'It was very evident that the Sultan was a weak man with little power or authority and one who took little personal interest in the affairs and left everything to the ministers.... Indian Merchants... practically run the trade of the Maldives and are inclined to interfere in its government,' writes the Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies station at Trincomalee on 20 October 1928.

The British Governor of Ceylon Sir H. Stanley reports: Abdul Hameed Didi, the Maldive Government representative in Colombo, and interpreter for the visit, accompanied the governor into Male' harbour in HMS Effingham at 11.00 a.m., 1 October 1928. The British and Maldivians 'raised our flags and saluted of 21 guns each'. Ministers come out in a goverment boat 'manned by 18 smart-looking and efficient oarsmen.'

Regarding the sultan's (Shamsudeen's) habits: 'I understand he keeps unusual hours; he normally rises at 5 p.m., eats his one meal of the day at 7.30 p.m., spends the whole of the night indulging in Hindustani music with his favourite attendants and his son, and goes to bed in the morning.'

The king's boat was built in Colombo, propelled by 12 oarsmen dressed in white, with red fez caps, escorted by two long gigs. Mohamed Fareed was in command of the king's guard.

Sultan wore 'long, richly-flowered greenish under-garment covered by a long robe of blue silk, bordered in gold silk at the edge and at the cuffs, gold brocade slippers with turn-up toes and on his head a white fagudi, or turban, terminating in a small spike-like ornament of gold.' An attendant held a large fan over him of peacock feathers, another held his sword and circular red shield. Shamsudeen had a train bearer. On the boat, two servants held large white umbrellas over the sultan's cabin. Shamsudeen was seasick at this time, and he ws late for the 2 p.m. visit, arriving at 3 p.m. because of his habit of rising at 5 p.m.

(During this visit the governor was concerned about the fact that he had no official power at sea, and in Maldives he was without cable contact to Colombo. There was only the ship's radio.)

Regarding the sultan's son, Hassan Izudeen, a young man of 26, educated in Colombo: 'Owing to the unfortunate manner of his life since his return to Male', he appears to be in a very precarious state of health. He is said to be a moral and physical wreck, and he was unable to appear during my visit.'

Shamsudeen was of medium height and clean shaven except for moustache. He is described as 'kind-hearted, weak in character, devoid of physical energy, and of low vitality. His nervous system is enfeebled, demeanour shy and deferential, and he spoke in a whisper.'

The British governor was greeted only by men and boys. Guards were dressed in khaki and holding very antiquated looking muskets and bayonets. It was 300 metres to the palace and the party moved there with umbrellas overhead, preceded by the sultan's band and followed by ministers and officials. The route was gaily decorated pandals, and red and white posts with red flags, and lined with troops armed with lances. There was a 'large respectful crowd of interested but quite silent men and boys.'

At the palace, conversation carried on 'without the usual ceremonial interposition of Tamil and Hindustani' which is always observed during the tribute ceremony in Colombo. Sultan 'knew very little indeed about his subjects and their government... he has never left the islands and only goes outside his palace on rare occasions... He appeared to be completely in the hands of the Didi family, especially Ahmed Didi, his private secretary... It was clear he relied on them, and that he really did not know the answers to my questions.'

The Didi family 'is in complete control of the government of the islands.' This control is 'reasonably satisfactory with efficiency and propriety.' But the administration is hampered by the sultan's 'unwillingness' and 'incapacity' to give attention to public affairs.

Shamsudeen was presented with a gramophone. He already has a powerful wireless receiving set. A U.S. made car imported from Colombo for the occasion, drives the governor through Male'. He notices the people are orderly and well-nourished, and there are many graveyards. Fences were similar to houses in northern and north-eastern Ceylon, and women were not veiled, just wearing a small hat of cloth worn tilted, and above the ear.

The governor met Borah merchants next day in the outer rooms of the palace. They own all the odis or dhows trading between Ceylon and Male', and they monopolise the rice trade. They influence the ministers to ban Maldivians owning ships, or shops in the Male' business district. The governor warned them not to interfere in political or economic development. He inspected schools, government buildings, the court and flogging instruments.

The main tanks for fresh water were not completed. Was it 'oriental lethargy?' the governor surmised. A wall surrounds the island and there are government workshops. Male's population is about 6,000 with no Europeans. The ministers now want a steamboat, like the British have. This would help them but 'Maldivian lethargy still remains a factor to be taken into account.' The governor sees the benefit of two motorised inter-island ships, and one Colombo-Male' ship. Also he would like to see the two rainwater tanks completed in Male'.

The governor writes that he has 'not seen of heard anything indicative of actual misgovernment', but there are royal succession problems because the son (Hassan Izudeen) is unfit. The best successor is probably Shamsudeen's brother in India, but he is married to an Indian and there is 'prejudice against him.'

In a private conversation, the governor told Shamsudeen not to leave it all up to his ministers. 'If Your Highness saw how His Majesty works in England, you would realise how a sovereign who loves his people works for them.' The governor repeated this message again and again, and urged that the impartiality of justice be protected. Shamsudeen replied with an ambiguity which the governor missed - 'All the world knows about British justice and how it is being done.'

The previous official visit to Maldives before this one, had been in 1910 by Sir Henry McCallum.

Notes from 'Visit of Governor to Maldive Islands' 1928
Public Records Office, London
CO54/893/9


Maldives falls under British control
Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan wanted to keep control over Maldives permanently in the hands of his family and I am not referring to the throne. But it was an impossible thing to achieve in those times.

Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan was the son of Aishath Kabaa who was the daughter of Sultan Mohamed Muizudeen. His father was Feeali Ibrahim Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. Actually he was really a takurufan of lower status, but Bandarain arranged things so he received a kilegefan peerage. Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan was one of the closest relatives of the prominent kings who were the descendants of Dhon Bandarain's family. His mother's father was the eldest son of Muleege Dhon Bandarain.

Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan sired many children and when Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan decided to become related to Kakaage Ali Kilegefan, he married Ali Kilegefan's daughter, Dhon Didi. Only one boy was born from this union, he was Ahmed Didi who later became known as Ahmed Kuda Doshimeyna Kilegefan. He was Mohamed Ameen's father. The school known as 'Madrasathul Ameer Ahmed' is named after him.

In the political atmosphere prevalent in Maldives at that time, the two most powerful people were Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan and Galolhuge (Athireege) Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan. Serious hostilities developed between these noblemen. This was during the long reign of king Mohamed Imadudeen IV, when the chief minister was Galolhuge Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan. Their political struggles increasingly intesified. When Dhon Ahmed Doshimeyna Kilegefan, the most influential powerbroker of the period, passed away, the dispute between the two rivals became even worse.

One night, the baby Ahmed Didi was wrapped in a blanket, taken away from Kakaage and brought to Galolhuge. It was less than a month after Ibrahim Didi's wife had given birth to the boy. The baby's mother Dhon Didi (the daughter of Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan) was divorced by Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan and everything that he had given to her, including even her sewing needle, was sent back to Galolhuge from Kakaage. Both houses were on the street now known as Ali Kilegefan Magu. The main power house is now where Kakaage was then. At the northern end of the street was Galolhuge. It was a huge block of land. Both these peers had Ali in their names and it seems likely the street was named after them.

The three sons of Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan became the most powerful men in politics. The eldest was Mohamed Didi, later known as Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. Next was Abdullah Didi, who became Abdullah Fashana Kilegefan. And the third son was Ismail Didi who was to be known as Doshimeyna Manikfan. Another major powerbroker at that time was Henveiruge Hassan Didi, who was later known as Hassan Hakura Manikfan. He married Kadeeja Didi the daughter of Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. Their eldest son was Henveiruge Ali Didi, later known as Ali Kuda Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. These were the four main political figures from Kakaage.

King Mohamed Imadhuddheen's second son was king Ibrahim Nooradeen. He first married Goma from Kakaage, the granddaughter of Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. Thus another nobleman was added to Kakaage.

During this time, the most influential religious figure was Sheikh Mohamed Jamaludeen Naib Tutu. He was also connected to Kakaage.

With all these people on the Kakaage side, Galolhuge Ali Doshimeyna was compelled to leave Maldives and settle in Galle in Sri Lanka. At that time, Galle was the capital; Colombo hadn't been built.

Galolhuge Ali Doshimeyna was the father of Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan. This man was a grand and wealthy figure who owned many sailing ships and overseas trading vessels. He obtained enormous wealth through his position as chief minister. Mohamed Ameen's book Gratitude of a Son states that when this nobleman left the Maldives, the government lost its top level administrator.

Ibrahim Nooradeen, who later became king, took the daughter of Henveiruge Hassan Hakura Manikfan as a second wife. His first wife, Kakaage Goma, had given birth to a son. This son became Mohamed Shamsudeen III, and reigned for a long period. The daughter of Henveiruge Hakura Manikfan gave birth to two sons from Nooradeen Bandarain. These children were Maarandhoo Ganduvaru Doshee Manipulhu and Tutu Manipulhu.

Henveiruge Hakura Manikfan came between Eggamuge Hassan Famudeyri Kilegefan's daughter Dhon Didi and Ibrahim Doshimeyna after they had had three children. She got divorced and he married her. At that time Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan's Abdul Majeed Didi, Abdul Hameed Didi and Tutu Dhon Didi were already born. Eggamuge Dhon Didi had Mohamed Abdul Samad Didi and Ahmed Kamil Didi to Hassan Hakura Manikfan.

King Mohamed Imadudeen IV died, and because the eldest son was suffering from a disability, the second son Ibrahim Nooradeen was crowned as the king.

In Galle, Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan was encouraging the British to take control of Maldives. Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan and Naibu Tutu refused to have anything to do with this idea. There were some very powerful friends of Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan in Maldives and through their influence Ibrahim Nooradeen Bandarain was persuaded to bring back Ibrahim Didi to Male' from Galle.

Didi married Goma, the king's sister on his father's side, and he was also made the chief minister and the doshimeyna koli was conducted. (Translators' note: a koli was a public announcement of a person's peerage, in this case a doshimeyna peerage, on the streets of Male' heralded by a gong)

The people who helped Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan with all this were Noomaraa Ganduvaru Fashana Kilegefan and his eldest son, later known as Maafaiy Kilegefan, and Malinge Hassan Didi, the famous Hassan Velana Manikfan, Sayyidh Kilegefan of Esjehi Ganduvaru, and Dhon Manik's Ismail Didi who is now popularly known as Meeru Bahuru Ismail Didi. Yet, all these people were unable to beat the Kakaage party.

Then, the only person in Maldives who understood English was Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan. His eldest son, Ahmed Didi was studying English in Richmond College in Galle, and being taught by British teachers. According to the writings of Mohamed Ameen, Ahmed Didi studied continuously for seven years. Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan's paternal brother, Athireege Abdullah Didi was also learning English in Galle. Anyway, the Kakaage group remained united and very powerful. The only way the Athireege members could achieve ruling status was to overthrow the Kakaage with the help of the British.

Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan had a strong personality and he was connected with the noblemen from Kakaage. As I wrote in The History of the Big Fire, Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan could only get the British involved in Maldivian politics by doing the things I described in that book. It is all recorded there.

King Mohamed Mu-eenudeen III was compelled by threats to give up the independent sovereignty of Maldives, and forced to sign an agreement with Britain on 16 December 1887. After being a British colony for 78 years, the story of the achievement of independence will be told in the following pages.

Status of the Foreign Traders
The dispute between Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan and Galolhuge Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan, father of Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan, has been explained above. As the power of Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan grew, he brought Borah traders to the Maldives and opened the way for them to do business in the country. This was in competition with the business operations of Galolhuge Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

The first to arrive were businessmen from T. A. J. Noor Bahi Company. Their shop was called Dhigu Fihaara (Long Shop). Shortly afterwards, Kareemji Jaufarji was given permission to trade in Male'. His shop was known as Bodu Fihaara (Big Shop). The Kakaage family members gave away the economic independence of Maldives when big businessmen like Mohamed Ali Kareemji and Moosa Bahi gained power over the country's export and import trade.

The Borah traders operated in Maldives for 105 years, robbing the nation and causing terrible difficulties before they were expelled by Ibrahim Nasir and Maldives gained its independence. The story of these events will be told in the coming pages. Towards the end, there were 300 Borahs operating in the Male' market. They occupied a large area of the bazaar and operated shops, mosques and three warehouses.


With service to the nation, a person's name may be acclaimed and eternally revived to assume a new healthy green freshness.






The Brightest Star
History of Mohamed Ameen

(with additional essays in support of the issues raised)

In the Name of Allah, the Greatest and Most Compassionate

The Brightest Star
  aminath faiza, also wrote a biography of ameen published in 1997
Aminath Faiza


Aminath Faiza of Daisymaage in Galolhu ward came to this house and presented me with a copy of Issue 202 of Faiythoora magazine in which was published a poem entitled The Nation's Ameen, aah! The name of this section is taken from there. I begin with a presentation of Aminath Faiza's poem to the readers, followed by some essays written by Ibrahim Shihab, events that I have witnessed and personally experienced, and information received from reliable sources.

In my view it is best to start with a poem, so here is a transcription.

The Nation's Ameen, aah!

In here, I cannot see scenes of rejoicing
this is no senseless grief in my heart
where pain and ache remains, ever since
my heart endured those numerous wounds.
Merciless lesions inflicted on that noble man,
glimpses of the Day of Judgment revealed before my eyes.

Patience! Patience! With the hardness of those stony hearts!
That day, when the generosity of the noble man was displayed for all,
His noble head and body were crushed,
and not a word was raised in protest.
Forced from this world by merciless brutality,
A rose in bloom, known to all.

Daring to diminish the stars from Athirige
is puffing your chest and firing arrows into the sun.
For sure the seven stars of guraha were spawned from Athirige
and doubtless the seventh star beamed more brightly
With a shine enlightening and leading,
Revealing the heroes past, and the character of the people.
Delivering us a nation and a homeland,
resilient in his determination to guide the children of the nation,
laying the foundation of education and the seeds of learning.
Some he had nurtured were even then blooming,
The flowers of literary learning
Spreading the shadatah emitted from blooming literary intellect
Providing a sense of civilisation and feeling of belonging

He taught us love for the national homeland
A right for sure. Making it fashionable to have this belief.
A martyr for the nation at the crooked hands of that nation.
The world is open in its admission
That he was the Ameen of the nation.

There can be no doubt in any mind paused in thought
That the nation lost an exemplary
A loving caring father, he was its active and proud son.
A hero who lead us upon the path
You have sought to crush to pieces.

Ms Aminath Faiza
Daisymaage, Galolhu ward
Male'


The issue of Faiythoora was presented to me at my house on 19 March 1996.


Aminath Faiza poem 'the nation's Ameen.. ah!
aminath faiza - poem - the nations ameen.. aah!

Aminath Faiza's poem 'The Nation's Ameen.. aah!'
from Faiythoora 202, 1996





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