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Regents, Usurpers and Judges, 1687-1721
National Centre of Linguistics and Historical Research, Male', Maldives
First printing 1981, second printing 1993
translated by Fareesha Abdulla with assistance from Majid Abdul-Wahhab and Michael O'Shea
Notes and section titles by Maldives Culture
2005-2012



'A man in his life may have had eighty wives and more... In like manner the wives have a vast number of husbands but, far from being imputed to them for any kind of blame, they are prouder the oftener they have changed husbands and when they are courted they tell the number, names and quality of their former husbands as a high recommendation.

Nor are they less esteemed by their gallants but rather more, and less is thought of one who is still a virgin than of one who is no longer so, except it be by the king and the great lords. Yet, despite this common changing, you will find men and women who remain for a long time together, by reason that they love and cherish each other more than all the world.'

Francois Pyrard, resident in Male'
1602-07





'Bhang, an admirable herb, grows in many places of this coast as also in Bengal; but Ganga is brought from the island of Sumatra, and is often sold at very high rates. It is a thing that resembles hemp seed and grows after the same manner, but the other is of a larger leaf and gross seed.

Ganga being of a more pleasant operation, much addicting to venery [old English word meaning 'the pursuit of or indulgence in sexual pleasure'], is sold at five times the price the other is. They study many ways to use it, but not one of them that fails to intoxicate them to admiration.

Sometimes they mix it with their tobacco and smoke it, a very speedy way to be besotted; at other times they chew it, but the most pleasant way of taking it is as follows: pound or grind a handful of the seed and leaf together, which is mixed with one pint of fresh water, and let it soak near one quarter of an hour or more, then strain through a piece of calico or what else is fine, and drink off the liquor, and in less then half an hour its operation will show itself for the space of four or five hours.

And it operates according to the thoughts and fancy of the party that drinks thereof, in such manner that if he be merry at that instant, he shall continue so with exceeding great laughter for a long time, rather overmerry, laughing heartily at everything they discern; and, on the contrary, if it is taken in a fearful or melancholy posture, he shall keep great lamentation and seem to be in great anguish of spirit, taking away all manly gestures or thoughts from him.

I have often seen these humours experienced in Bengal. One for instance: Eight or ten of us (Englishmen) to try the practice, we would need drink every man his pint of bhang, which we purchased in the bazaar of the value of 6 pence English money. I ordered my man to bring along with him one of the faqirs (moslem holy men) who frequently drink of this liquor, promising him his dose of the same to come and compound the rest for us, which he cordially and freely accepted of, and it was welcome to him as a crown in English money.

We drank each man his portion, and sent the faqir outside, and made fastened all doors and windows, that none of us might run into the street, or any person come in to behold any of our humours thereby to laugh at us.

The faqir sat outside the street door, calling us all kings and brave fellows, fancying himself to be at the gates of the palace at Agra, singing to that purpose in the Hindustan language.

It soon took its operation upon most of us, but merrily, save for two of our number, who I suppose feared it might do them some harm not being accustomed thereto. One of them sat himself down upon the floor and wept bitterly all afternoon; the other terrified with fear stuck his head into a great Mortavan jar and continued in that posture 4 hours or more; four or five of us lay upon the carpets that were spread in the room, highly complementing each other in high terms, each fancying himself no less than the Emperor.

One was quarrelsome and fought one of the wooden pillars of the porch, until he had left himself little skin upon the knuckles of his fingers. Myself and one more sat sweating for the space of three hours in exceeding measure.

Taste it has not any, in my judgement less than fair water, yet it is of such a bewitching sottish nature, that whoever use it but one month or two cannot forsake it without much difficulty.'

Thomas Bowrey
A Geographical Account of the Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679





'If a ruler governs considerately, devoid of wrong-doing, better it is than even a united army; for a smaller force, if contented, and even infidels, would overcome a greater force which groans under the rule of injustice. In the hadith it is said: If a ruler treats his subjects unjustly, his kingdom will be taken by enemies.'

from Treatise of Advice to Sovereigns in the first section of an older copy of the Tareek translated in HCP Bell,
The Maldive Islands, Monograph
1940


The regency of Mariyam Kabafan in the reign of Kuda Mohamed 1687-1692
This young king was only six years old and his title was Sultan Mohamed, Siri Mani Ran Loaka Maha Radun. Ministers and courtiers ran the affairs of the monarchy from the security guards' gate. The treasury keys were in the hands of the courtiers, and the king's mother and servants were not allowed more than they needed. The courtiers were affectionate towards the king and ran the monarchy well.

They stayed alert and did things properly on his behalf, but the young king's mother began scheming and after a short time she convinced Fuladoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleygefan to become her ally. Together they persuaded Devadoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan to join their conspiracy. Then they distributed money to the leaders of the soldiers. The plan was to remove the ministers and courtiers, leaving Mariyam Kabafan as the regent.

The group gathered at the palace and listened to Mariyam's grievances. She complained that Fenfushi Velana Takurufan and his followers were making life difficult for the king. Each month there was barely enough allowance money.

'We cannot go on,' she said. 'They give a month's allowance that can only last 20 days. We cannot go on like this!'

Soldiers supporting the king's mother jumped up and began to speak. After a heated argument, Fenfushi Velana Takurufan was dragged out and exiled to Tinadoo island on Huvadu atoll. All his property was seized and taken to the treasury, and the king's mother became the regent.

She was the daughter of a concubine from Hindustan, and openly immoral. Lusting after Mohamed Famuladeyri Kilegefan, the son of king Iskandar's maternal brother Hassan Fashana Kilegefan, she demanded his presence but he would not obey. Angrily, she summoned her guard and ministers, and told them that Mohamed Famuladeyri was trying to usurp the throne. He was exiled to Fua Mulak.

Mariyam Kabafan made her brother Ali the new prime minister and he seized the wife of Mohamed Famuladeyri. She was Mariyam, the daughter of Fenfushi Velana Takurufan. Mariyam Kabafan also gave ministerships to her other brothers, Ibrahim and Esa. Then she married someone and he received the Doshimeyna Kilege title. After that, her daughter married the son of Takandoo Bandeyri Ali. Her sister, Lady Aisha, married Fuladoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleyge.

Mariyam Kabafan selected a number of attractive young men. They were treated as junior ministers but their real purpose was to attend to her special bodily needs and they took no part in the administration.

Even in the presence of her husband, these junior ministers were allowed to discuss anything with her. The husband was under this lady's power and as weak as a cuckold. He dare not divorce her.

Men who had been ministers during the earlier reign of king Iskandar, men like Umar Daharada Kaleyfan the son of Fonadoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan, and Ahmed Vazir Kaleyfan the lance instructor, and Fasmandoo Hassan Hakura Takurufan, all these men were weak and in her power. They were ministers in name only.

Each morning and evening, fourteen and fifteen year old boys from elite families were gathered at the palace and made to play games and sing love songs.

Once or twice every year, Mariyam would go on an official tour. During these trips, men and women could mingle without restraint, playing games and singing romantic songs. Property was seized in the name of gift-offerings.

Apparently this noblewoman and her followers treated religious scholars badly, and immoral behaviour was practised in front of their eyes, just to annoy them. Many scholars were unable to tolerate the situation and left Maldives. Among those who departed were Hassan Tajudeen who was the student of Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan, and Malin Adana. They both went to Malabar. In Calicut they boarded a ship for Mecca and performed haj. They visited Medina, and performed umra. Malin Adana died in Mecca.

Similarly, other members of the Male' aristocracy went to the Alirajah in Cannanore.

Some of Mariyam's maternal brothers visited other people's wives in Male' and assaulted people. Chief minister Ali Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan caused trouble by asking for Amina Kabadi Kilegefan, the wife of Kateeb Takurufan. The husband prayed to holy God, and Allah listened and a virulent disease afflicted the chief minister. The affliction was so bad that his lower legs and penis burst open. Due to the noxious smell, people would not go near him. He could not recover from this disease and he couldn't die either until he had received the forgiveness of the husband, Kateeb Takurufan. Only then did Ali die.

When king Mohamed reached maturity, he disapproved of the actions of his mother's brothers. He loved the children of his father's relatives, but there was no man among them except for Mohamed Manikfan who had been exiled to Fua Mulak. Young king Mohamed brought him back to Male' and kept him in Mafannu Atiree palace. The king treated him well, and his mother's siblings disapproved of this.

On 15 January 1691, Hassan Tajudeen returned to Male'. The king's mother had intended to let her son bring Tajudeen back into Male', but Fuladoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleyfan put a stop to this. He said that if Tajudeen was allowed to return, he might plot with others and revolt. Hassan Tajudeen was kept aboard his vessel in the hot sun for two days moored in front of the fort watchtower inside the harbour wall. Tajudeen's teacher Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan was not allowed to visit his doani, nor were any of his former students, nor any relatives. After this, Tajudeen was exiled to Gan island on Hadunmati atoll.

Half way through the following month of February, the people who had gone to Cannanore seeking help from the Alirajah, arrived at Tiladunmati (Haa Alif and Haa Daal) atoll in a caravel. They took captives on Tiladunmati and punished them; tying them up and stealing their property. When this news reached the king and his mother, the ministers and armed forces gathered and caravels and large odi were launched. The army and ministers' supporters loaded their weapons into the boats and sailed north for Tiladunmati.

When the enemy saw the sails of the approaching Male' vessels, they quickly fled in their ships. The king's men fired their guns and chased after them.

Later, the victors returned to Male'. When the king's mother heard about the success of her armed forces, she prepared herself to make an official short voyage to meet them. She set out in a large odi, covered against the sun, with her special attendants and the young king. They sailed happily out to meet the army. On their way back, everyone spent the night at Bandos island and the men and women there had a great time.

Next day when the sun rose, people were still celebrating as the decorated royal odi anchored at Doonidoo island. Guns were fired from the odi, and a spark from one of the wick holes dropped into a container of gunpowder. It caught fire and the flames spread underneath the shade awning. As the fire grew, the awning collapsed. In an explosion, people were thrown into the air and their bodies were cut and burnt when they dropped back onto the ship and into the sea. The remains of the odi burnt and sank.

The king was still alive but his mother had been obliterated. Following behind, the undamaged caravels and doani raced to the area where the royal odi had exploded. Some survivors were rescued though they were seriously burnt, but others were dead and their bodies were taken away. The king's mother and her special friends could not be found, but the young king was rushed onto land and treated. Very few survived among the burn victims and the king died of his injuries.

This event occurred on the morning of 27 March 1691. The king was only 10 years, 11 months and six days old, and he had reigned for four years, one month and 19 days.


King Mohamed Muhiyudeen 1691-92
Mariyam's surviving relatives were her ministers Ibrahim and Esa. She also had a daughter married to a son of Fonadoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan. Some of the aristocracy felt that this daughter's husband should be given the kingship, but Umar Daharada Kaleyfan, the son of Fonadoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan, and Haji Ali Navin disagreed. They were supported by the elders and members of the army. They all gathered at the house of Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan. They pledged to install Mohamed Manikfan as king. He was the son of King Iskander's maternal brother Hassan Fashana Kilegefan.

The next day, all the people gathered at the palace and said they would only give the kingship to a descendent of Kaba Aisha. And in that line there was a mature man, Mohamed Manikfan, the son of Hassan Fashana Kilegefan who was the son of Lady Aisha. That lord was now brought forward and placed on the throne.

The king's title was Sultan Mohamed Muhiyudeen, Siri Nakarai Sundura Bavana Maha Radun. He was generous, fair and patient and kind to scholars. The exiled Hassan Tajudeen was brought back from Gan island (Laam atoll) and treated with honour. He was paid 50 lari a month and accommodated in Male'.


Cannabis and alcohol banned 1691
Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan also made a dignified return to the palace. He sat on a large wooden bench bed and from there he was told to preach. Kateeb Takurufan began by reciting a verse from the Koran and after his preaching finished, the town crier was sent out to give the following instructions:
Do not drink alcohol.
Do not eat cannabis.
Do not commit adultery.
Women must wear the face-covering veil.
Women must give way to men on the street.
The wells and baths at the mosques must be cleaned.
Mosques must give the call to prayer five times a day, and people must join the congregation.

All this took place on the same day, 4 April 1691. The king established these rules as a tradition in Maldives.

Other changes made by the king included men being permitted to wear shirts, turbans and sandals. Before that, kings had forbidden these clothes and footwear to all except the judges and Male's two chiefs. The king also gave his assent to anyone who wanted to go to the haj. Previously this had been illegal for commoners.

During Mohamed Muhiyudeen's reign, the number of scholars increased and with the assistance of the king, they were respected. Atoll chiefs were told to make the new laws and prohibitions universally known, and judges in the islands were advised accordingly. The people's taxes were reduced, and the king proclaimed that if a dead person had no heir or agent, then that person's property would be distributed to orphans or the poor. Prior to this, if there was no heir or agent, the government would confiscate the property.

While Mohamed ruled, senior officials were like friends to the common people. During maulood ceremonies, they would not even take a lemon, chili or banana from the banquet. The public lived a relaxed life and they called the monarch 'a kind king'. He acted this way solely due to the advice of Mohamed Sirajudeen Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan and his student Hassan Tajudeen.

The king then sent a letter to the Qadiri missionary Sayyid Kaleyfan in which was written:
'Just as you prayed to holy God, the throne of Maldives has been divinely granted to me. I very much wish to see you again and I await your arrival here.'

Sayyid Kaleyfan was able to come to Maldives and he arrived very early in the sailing season. At the time, the king was extremely sick. Sayyid was treated with honour and ceremoniously greeted in Male'. Three days after his arrival, the king died on 17 February 1692. He had reigned for slightly less than a year and was buried beside king Kuda Mohamed.


King Sayyid Kaleyfan 1692
After this, the noble Sayyid Kaleyfan ascended the throne, supported by two hadith that praise the eternal pre-eminence and leadership of the Quresh tribe from Mecca. Sayyid was proclaimed king at a consensus meeting on 18 February 1692, and his name became Sultan Mohamed Shamsudeen Hamavee.

His authority was established and he seemed destined to be a patient, generous, just, pious, ascetic, wise and scholarly king. Religious rules were circulated, traditional customs were abolished if deemed contrary to sharia, and prayer time had to be attended regularly. Each night, he preached between prayer times at dusk and late evening. After the late prayer, he taught various subjects to Devadoo Fandiyaru Takurufan, Mohamed Sirajudeen Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan, Hassan Tajudeen and others.

From the time of the sighting of the new moon in the month of Rajab until the end of Ramadan, Hassan Tajudeen was assigned to teach the hadith between dusk and late evening prayer-times at the Friday mosque. He was paid 100 lari a month.

Each Friday, following the afternoon prayer, Hassan Tajudeen would walk through the island streets with his officials and the government floggers. They proclaimed religious laws and banned non-Islamic practices. Anybody seen doing forbidden things was flogged and ordered to abandon their behaviour.

If a required prayer-time was omitted, a person could be summoned to the palace into the king's presence and beheaded by the sword of the sharia. After three Fridays, everybody was attending all required prayers.

One day during the fasting month, the king went to the Friday prayer. He noticed the mosque was full and people were standing outside. He said when fasting was finished, a larger mosque would be built, but on the sixteenth day of Ramadan he caught a fever and developed diarrhoea.

Needing a nurse, he married king Muhiyudeen's widow Mariyam Kabafan. His sickness went from bad to worse and he died in the afternoon between the noon and afternoon prayer-times on 9 July 1692. The king was buried beside the grave of Sayyid Murutala from the Syria/Iraq region. These graves lay on the western side of the tomb of the Tabriz holyman [believed to have converted the king and the people of Male' to Islam in 1153]. Sayyid Kaleyfan had reigned for four months and twenty-five days.

Most of the aristocracy decided Fonadoo Kateeb Takurufan should be king and they sent for him. He disliked the idea, and he secretly left Male' after the sunset prayer. With his wife and children, he went to live in Fonadoo island on Hadunmati atoll.


The Devadoo king, Mohamed son of Haji Ali Tukala 1692-1701
After the kateeb left Male', some ministers went secretly to see Devadoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan and decided he would be king. They concealed their plans and waited, and four months went by as their support grew.

At the time, Mariyam Kabafan, the widow of both king Muhiyudeen and the Sayyid, was in the royal palace. After the required mourning period of four months, it was decided she would marry the judge but she would not agree because he was too old. The judge's supporters realised that things might get difficult for them if they left the palace under her control until she got married. They gathered at the judge's house and money was distributed. He promised to give them a further 200,000 lari after winning the throne.

They all left the courthouse together and entered the royal palace before dawn. The leaders among them were minister Mohamed Aman, Bilehfahee Ibrahim Ranahamadi Kaleygefan, Ali Dahara Takurufan the son of Gamu Moosa, and minister Ali the brother of Fandiyaru Kaleyfan's wife.

Accompanied by the judge, these people tied up Mariyam Kabafan's father Fenfushi Velana Takurufan and the other people with him. They captured the monarchy and Devadoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan sat on the royal throne.

When daylight arrived, guns were fired and official drums were beaten. Hassan Tajudeen arrived and made a lot of promises that the new king would govern justly. These promises established a consensus, and the rest of the people began to support the new king.

Then Mariyam Kabafan emerged and kissed both his feet and requested amnesty. The king extended his pardon to the royal lady and her family and treated her with respect. He looked after her and they got married. The captives were released and high positions given to those who had supported the judge's bid for the throne.

Mulee Mohamed Aman was given a ministership and the position of chief treasurer. Isdoo Ali Takurufan became a minister. He was the brother of Kadeeja Kaba, Fandiyaru Kaleyfan's wife. This Ali's father was Isdoo Ibrahim Velana Takurufan.

The son of the daughter of the king's aunt was made the minister of health. He was called Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan. He was also made the head trainer at the armoury. 200,000 lari was distributed among the armed forces.

The new king's name was Sultan Mohamed son of Haji Ali Tukala. His title in Divehi was made official - Siri Kularanmani Maha Radun. This king was pious, scholarly and kind. He had been a magistrate for fourteen years. The king spent treasury money on the scholars and many were trained. Every Ashura day [Translators' note: Ashura - The tenth of the lunar Islamic month of Muharram, celebrated as a holy day by Sunni moslems, and by Shia moslems as a day of mourning for the anniversary of the death of Hussein], many lari coins and rupee notes and gold coins were distributed, and people who owed money received help with their repayments. Hearing about this, people in debt came from Hindustan and Malabar. After they had received enough to repay their debts, they went off happily.

The mosques built by previous kings were restored and new mosques were built here and there. Waqf previously removed, were returned, and taxation was greatly reduced.

During this period, the people were in a happy and well-off state. Many ships came from Surat, Hindustan and Acheh. It was forbidden to sell coir rope, fish and cowrie shells directly to foreigners. All these things had to be brought to the treasury and sold to the foreigners from there. The government bought rice at a special low price without import tax. The foreign minister and treasurer were given permission to receive 15,000kg of rice from each ship arriving from overseas. These two men exercised their right that year and in following years the amount they received increased and included not only rice but other things as well. The public had to buy almost everything from them.


Hassan Tajudeen restricts slavery 1692
In spite of all this, people enjoyed a life of plenty. Hassan Tajudeen was made judge on the seventh day of the king's reign on Wednesday 12 November 1692. Prior to accepting the position, he extracted a promise from the king that the monarch would strictly adhere to his judgements. Then Tajudeen prohibited the sale of independent women and their employment as unpaid slaves. Before this, the aristocracy made people work without payment, and sold them just like slaves. If anyone held as a slave appealed to Hassan Tajudeen, he instructed that the person be released and a symbolic payment be made to the owner. If a person was bonded by debt, the accounts were checked and any outstanding debt was paid by the treasury. For the first time in Maldives, Hassan Tajudeen declared that the ownership of independent people as slaves was a forbidden and sinful act.

He gave homeless orphans the right to inherit deceased people's property.

The use of swords and daggers to avenge adultery was banned. Regarding this practice, the public was instructed to accept the judgments of the court where evidence was taken and floggings carried out. Due to the embarrassment of public exposure, adultery ceased. It was also prohibited for women to avenge adultery by cutting off another woman's hair or tearing her dress.

By decree, offerings for maulood recitations were limited to twelve lari.


Death of king Mohamed son of Haji Ali Tukala
The king's wife, Kadeeja Kabafan died. She was the daughter of Isdoo Velana Takurufan. After her death, people were sent to her grave to recite prayers for four months and ten days. Huge ceremonies took place. The king married Sanfa Kabafan, the daughter of Hussein Takurufan who was the son of Isdoo Ibrahim Velana Takurufan. A year later, this queen became pregnant and immediately afterwards the king became seriously ill.

While he was ill, Kurendoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan and Isdoo Ali Velana Takurufan went to see the king and told him a story that made him furious with his maternal sister and her son Ali Kateeb Takurufan, and her husband Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan. Instructions were given for this family to be banned from the king's presence. The king had intended to pass on the crown to Ali Kateeb Takurufan.

Kurendoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan, Isdoo Velana Takurufan and Sanfa Kabafan stayed beside the king until his death. When he passed away, Ali Velana Takurufan came out and said he had heard the king's command that his royal sister, her son, her husband and Rannabadeyri Takurufan and his mother were all to be exiled in Devadoo. This was done. After they left Male', the people were informed that the king had died.

Hassan Tajudeen bathed and dressed the king for burial, and next day the monarch and Kadeeja Kabafan were buried in a tomb built on the western side of the Friday mosque. The king had died on 16 January 1701. He had reigned for 8 years, nine months and ten days. After the funeral, the aristocrats, ministers and officials went to the royal palace and Sanfa Kabafan distributed 100 gold coins among them. Then 50,000 lari was allocated to the armed forces.

The noblewoman did this on the advice of Ali Velana Takurufan. Five days after the king's death, she also gave permission for Hassan Tajudeen to leave with his wife and children for Mecca. Sanfa Kabafan had labour pains four days later and Ali Velana Takurufan brought along a person who wrote on a plate and then dissolved the writing with water before mixing in a deadly poison. It was given to Sanfa and she drank it. Sanfa died after giving birth.


south india french map 1723
French map of South India showing ports and their controllers
Carte des Cotes de Malabar et de Coromandel, Guillaume de Lisle, 1723
Source: David Rumsey collection


King Ali Shah Bandar of Isdoo 1701
Velana Takurufan ascended to the throne on 25 January 1701. He was called Sultan Ali son of Vazir Ibrahim Shah Bandar, and his koli name was Siri Kularanmuiy Maha Radun. His paternal brother Ibrahim Takurufan the son of Hassan Mafaiy Takurufan, was made the foreign minister. Beru Muskuli Kaleyge became minister for health. Kurendoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan, who had never studied anything, was given the chief judge position.

The king was short and dark, hard-hearted, cruel and ignorant. He was a snob who showed no compassion or care for anyone. He wore gold jewellery and silk clothing, and enjoyed humiliating scholars and loved uneducated company. The learned Abdul Hakeem Eduru Kaleygefan was intimidated and kept in an inferior position. However, Almighty God very quickly restored him to a place of honour when death closed in upon the king.

The monarch had ordered a 30 metre odi to be built so he could send a letter to Said, the son of Mecca's Shareef Zaid. In that letter he intended to say that Hassan Tajudeen had left Male' with a lot of treasury goods and that Tajudeen's gifts to Said were the property of the king. But the odi was only half built when he died on 25 October 1701. He had reigned for nine months and nine days.


King Hassan 1701
On the day he died, his son Hassan obtained the consensus to be made king. He was thirteen years old. It was the will of the dying king that his son be given the kingship, and promises were made by Velana Takurufan and Beru Muskuli. The new king was called Sultan Hassan son of Sultan Ali Shah Bandar.

Intending to capture the throne, Velana Takurufan said to king Hassan, 'Beru Muskuli Kaleygefan is trying to marry your father's widow Kabafan and take over the throne.' Hassan believed this and exiled Famuladeyri Kaleygefan to Fua Mulak.


King Ibrahim Muzhirudeen 1701-04
After a short while, Abdul Hakeem Eduru Kaleygefan and Bodu Bandeyri Takurufan the son of Takandoo Kazin Ali Bodu Bandeyri Takurufan, and Fasmandoo Hassan Hakura Takurufan thought about the situation and all agreed to give the kingship to Ibrahim Velana Takurufan.

Abdul Hakeem said formally to the aristocracy and ministers: 'King Hassan is not a mature person. The kingship is not appropriate for him. You should break any promises you made to give him the kingship.' Everyone was very pleased to hear Abdul Hakeem speak in this way and Velana Takurufan was made king. He was called Sultan Ibrahim Muzhirudeen. In divehi language his name was Siri Muteiras Loaka Maha Radun.

He gave 100,000 lari to the armed forces, and many things were given to Abdul Hakeem and his students. Hakeem became the king's advisor.

During king Ibrahim's reign, the dethroned king Hassan was honourably treated. He ate at the same table as the king and his status was not challenged. Abdul Hakeem became chief judge, and the new king recalled his maternal brother Hassan Manik who had been sent away to Fua Mulak and gave him the official title of chief minister. His maternal brother Hussein Manik became foreign affairs minister. Another maternal brother was too young for a position.

The king's cousin was Mohamed Manik who was the defence minister during the reigns of kings Sayyid and Muhiyudeen. After king Sayyid's death, Mohamed Manik had voluntarily resigned and stayed in Diyamigili island on Raa atoll. Mohamed Manik was summoned and made defence minister again. His father Ibrahim Manik had held the same position during the time of the Devadoo king.


Mass death on royal haj trip 1704
As mentioned above, king Ali had started to build an odi for a trip to Mecca before he died. King Muzhirudeen completed the vessel. He wrote a letter of good tidings to Hassan Tajudeen and sent it to Mecca. Haji Kasim was made the captain of the odi. Hassan Tajudeen had been in Mecca when the Devadoo king died, and Muzhirudeen's letter asked him to return to Male' quickly. Tajudeen sailed back with his wife and children and when he arrived in Male', the king treated him with respect.

King Muzhirudeen was very kind and affectionate to the people. The tax collected from cowrie shells was reduced by a sixth. Since the Friday mosque was not facing Mecca correctly, another Friday mosque was built beside the large bathing tank. The Hand-Chopping mosque was renovated, and a ship was purchased for the voyage to Arabia. Four ocean-going vessels were built as well. They were launched and prepared for travel, then loaded with coconuts, coir rope and cowrie shells. Eighty big guns from the fort bastions were taken aboard with the appropriate ammunition and gunpowder. Kadoodoo Fathma Kabafan had given birth to the king's young son and she was there breast feeding. The king announced that the young son would have the kingship and the mother would be the regent in his absence.

Look at the shortness of this king's memory! Hassan, the son of this same king's uncle king Ali, had lost the throne at the age of fourteen because he was too young. Now king Muzhirudeen was giving the monarchy to a breast-feeding infant. Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan, the son of Diyamigili Ibrahim Doshimeyna, was made chief of the armed forces.

The king left for haj just after sunset on Friday 18 January 1704. He took along the ex-king Hassan and Hassan Tajudeen, as well as the chief judge Abdul Hakeem and the king's older brother Hassan Handeygiri Manik. The ship and four odi sailed off.

While they were moored at Rasdoo island harbour, a slave freed by the Devadoo king came up to the stern of the ship on a little raft. He was a negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan from Badidoo island on Daalu atoll. At that time, he was wearing one piece of cloth around his waist and his turban was torn and thread-bare turban. The king told him to get on board and gave him some good clothing. He was treated kindly and it was formally arranged for him to stay with the royal son. He was sent to Male'. Yagooth had been exiled to Badidoo by king Hassan.

The king left Rasdoo and when he anchored at Jidda, Suleiman Basha came and asked him to land there. Muzhirudeen disembarked and went to Mecca and performed the haj. Handeygirin Manikfan died there along with one of the king's wives. The party decided to cancel their trip to Medina and leave quickly for Male'. Abdul Hakeem died and he was buried in the Jidda cemetery on the right side of the gate that people pass through when they leave for Mecca.


map of saudi arabia and red sea and  socrota island
Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, and Socotra island



Three hundred people died from among the five hundred men and women who accompanied Muzhirudeen. They sailed from Jidda just after sighting the new moon on 4 June 1704. The king caught smallpox and stopped at Mocha for water. A person who was staying there, Amir Sheik Salihu Al-Hariri, helped to load the water. He was a member of the Sunni Shafi sect. As the king prepared to leave, Sheik Salihu said it was the season when rain and storms were strongest, and wise people stayed at Mocha and waited for better weather. The Maldivians ignored this advice and sailed off after midday on 26 June 1704.

They had just passed Socotra island when a storm hit, breaking a mast and plank of the purchased ship. After the tempest cleared, the ship's sails were torn and the mast was floating on the water. When the wind had died away, they raised a piece of timber for a new mast and improvised with a repaired sail.

The wind was blowing from the south and before dawn on the 19th day of their voyage, they were washed up at a place called Navabandar [on the coast of Gujarat]. With the ship about to flounder, some people jumped into the sea and swam to the beach. Others drowned. Those who reached the shore included king Muzhirudeen, ex-king Hassan, Tajudeen, and Haji Kasim the navigator plus a few of the armed guards.

There were infidel robbers where they landed and everyone on the beach lost their waistcoats and were left only with loin cloths. The survivors travelled overland, virtually naked, starving and barely breathing. At Surat they received food, water and clothing.Every odi, except one, was wrecked and damaged.

The intact odi had been strongly built and it arrived back in Male' harbour with news that storms had hit the fleet and they had been separated and wrecked. When the population of Male' heard that people had perished, they thought king Muzhirudeen was drowned.


Hussein Velana Manikfan attempts to seize power
The king's maternal brother Hussein Velana Manikfan decided to remove his elder brother's son and the boy's mother from the palace. He gave the order, and mother and son were expelled. Hussein Velana Takurufan then instructed some of the armed men to exile the negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan. Yagooth appealed the decision but to no avail. A soldier called Uteemu Sarangey tried to catch him, but Yagooth had a sword in his hand. He hacked at Sarangey and the soldier fell. Soldiers chased him with swords, guns and lances.

Yagooth ran to the Eid mosque, and then to the beach and along the harbour wall. The armed forces ran along the beach after him. Desperate, the negro lord came back onto land and ran towards the men with his sword drawn. They ducked away and just mananged to avoid his attack. Yagooth ran into an area of thick screwpine bush and his pursuers searched for him unsuccessfully. They lit a fire but Yagooth escaped. The next day a ship from Bengal sailed away, and it is believed Yagooth had secretly boarded the vessel. There was no more news of him.

Realising that the young son's supporters were gathering strength, Hussein Velana Manikfan hurried towards the palace. He discovered that he had lost control, and all his property was confiscated. Hussein and his wife and children were exiled to Naifaru island.

Thinking that Fatmath Kabafan had control of the monarchy, her relatives conspired together and humiliated the aristocracy of the island. They decided to exile Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan but he found out, and his supporters came with him to the palace and put him on the throne. He was called Sultan Mohamed Imadudeen and his official title in Divehi was Siri Kulasundura Siyaka Sastura Maha Radun.


King Mohamed Imadudeen II, 1704-21
King Muzhirudeen's son and mother were removed from the palace and the new king enthroned on the night of 18 December 1704. Fenfushi Haji Ismail was made the prime minister, and Eydafushi Ali became foreign minster. Moosa, the son of Diguma Bandeyri Takurufan became minister for health. Esa's son, Moosa Nasirudeen was made chief judge.

An appropriate position was given to each person who had supported the new king's bid for power. Among those supporters was Umar Hafiz Muguree but there was no position suitable for him so he became an advisor. Muraidoo Hasan kept the position of treasurer he had held under previous kings.

Less than two weeks had passed before king Mohamed headed off to Arabia in a rented ship from Surat. The ship was stopping in Manadoo lagoon when the king received news that the head of his militia had taken over the throne. Muzhirudeen headed to Male' intending to land there at night, but people in an odi from Kuredivaru island arrived at Male' before him and warned the new king that his predecessor was nearby.

Imadudeen ordered all of Male' to be on guard that night. This was 1 January 1705 in the early part of Ramadan. Odi were rowed all around Male' and the island was secured.

Muzhirudeen tried to land quietly at the western harbour wall but he had to sail off quickly when guards started shouting. As Muzhirudeen fled from Male', Imadudeen sent off a very fast vessel that caught up with his rival near Makunudoo island. Muzhirudeen and his wife and son were brought back to Male' and exiled to Fua Mulak. Hassan Tajudeen was sent to Gan island, Hadunmati atoll.

Ex-king Hassan was exiled to Hitadoo island on Addu atoll where he lived in luxury. People travelling between that island and Male' complained about Hassan's lifestyle to king Imadudeen so he sent armed men with instructions to keep Hassan under house arrest and limit his consumption of sweet foods to a small amount each day.

Later in Male', a rumour spread that judge Moosa Nasirudeen and Mohamed Kateeb Manik had held discussions and decided to overthrow the king. This was investigated and substantiated, so the judge was sent off to Mamakunudoo atoll. Kateeb Mohamed and his uncle Ahmed Ibrahim were sent to Mulee island, Mulaku atoll. Hassan Tajudeen was brought back and made the judge on the night of 15 February 1705.

Addu Umar Hafiz Muguree was made kateeb for helping the king win the throne. Later, the treasurer Muraidoo Hassan Kaleyge passed away, and this same Umar was made the new treasurer. He was very pleased to accept the position, but afterwards he was harsh with people and lacked any compassion. Umar had been a kateeb and memorised the Koran and learnt religious knowledge. However, when he became treasurer, Umar abandoned all he had learnt and immersed himself in material wealth by exercising political power to the detriment of others. Traders from India were especially intimidated. Umar disapproved of people trading with anyone but himself. He bought things in the name of the king at the low government price and even then he was slow to pay. When he finally paid, the amount was reduced by a sixth or an eighth [between 10%-20%]. Powerless, people complained to Almighty God.


Muzhirudeen, the British and the Mogul king of India
After a short time, ex-king Muzhirudeen escaped from Fua Mulak with the help of a servant in a small doani with a little food and water. The servant went with him, but the winds were light as they drifted slowly towards Galle in Sri Lanka and they arrived in a desperate state. Muzhirudeen had nothing but a cloth around his waist and a turban on his head. People in Galle treated him well, gave him provisions and provided him with accommodation in a wealthy person's house where he was treated with honour.

Muzhirudeen and his servant sailed on to Madras (Chennai) in a Dutch ship. From there, the ex-king went to the fort to meet the British ruler and ask for help. Muzhirudeen stayed in a house belonging to a moslem.

Imadudeen in Male' became very fearful when he received this news about the former king. He was not sure what Muzhirudeen was planning. The learned men of Male' went to the tomb of the person who brought Islam to Maldives, and prayed day and night that no harm would come to the reigning king.

A person called Minicoy Haji Takuru was sent in a ship from Male' to trick Muzhirudeen and bring him back. At sea, he happened to meet Kungna Mohamed, a son of the Aliraja, in a ship from Cannanore. After hearing about Imadudeen's plan from Haji Takuru, Kungna agreed to accompany the Maldivians to Madras. They all met Muzhirudeen and visited him often. Muzhirudeen had been given great honours and security guards by the British.

Kungna Mohamed and Haji Takuru eventually deceived Muzhirudeen and took him secretly past the guards at midnight. They left in Kungna's ship. When the guards checked next morning, the nobleman was missing and they ran down to the beach. Realising that Kungna Mohamed's ship had gone, they set sail after it. However, they could not catch up with Kungna and returned to Madras empty-handed.

With Muzhirudeen aboard, the ship sailed around to Tangapatan (southeast from modern Kollam in southern Kerala) where he was secretly imprisoned in Kungna Mohamed's house.
  french map 1752, Anville, Travancore
French map of Travancore region showing 'Tengapatnam' on the coast between 'Puduturey' and 'Injam'
Jean Anville 1752
Source: David Rumsey collection





french map showing porto novo in tamil nadu also named 'mahmud bender'
French map of Porto Novo area on Coromandel coast, giving dual name for port as 'Mahmud Bender'
Jean Anville 1752
Source: David Rumsey collection


Minicoy Haji Kasim was sent to back to Maldives. He arrived in Male' and told the king how the nobleman had been taken to Kungna's house in Tangapatan and held there. Haji Kasim explained how Kungna Mohamed had spent fifty gold coins from his own pocket during the capture of Muzhirudeen, and he would only part with the nobleman when this expense was paid, plus a ransom.

The king consulted his advisors and they all agreed to accept the demands and to send the money with a letter. Treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree refused to accept the decision, but everyone else stayed quiet. The king ordered an odi to be loaded with over one million cowrie shells, then placed Maruduru Malim in command and sent it to Aliraja in Cannanore. A letter accompanied the payment, asking for the arrest of ex-king Muzhirudeen. When the odi arrived, the shells were accepted from the captain by the Aliraja. Maruduru Malim returned to Male' and told the king he had been met by a ship with armed forces sent by the Aliraja, and that soldiers had also chased him on land. These were the lies. He didn't even bring a letter of reply for the king.


Muzhirudeen's alliance with Mogul king Farukshia
At Tangapatan, Muzhirudeen heard that a letter had been sent demanding his seizure and return to Maldives. One night, he and his servant escaped. Travelling only in the hours of darkness and resting during the day, they walked to Mahmad Bandar (Porto Novo) in Tamil Nadu. The people there treated him very well and he was given a few provisions. He sailed to Huglee (Kolkata) in Hindustan where he met the British commander at Ziyaudeen's house, told him what had happened and formally asked for assistance.

Ziyaudeen sent a letter to Hindustan's Indian ruler, Farukshia, who read that Muzhirudeen had gone to haj as the king, and a member of his armed forces had seized his throne. Farukshia responded to Muzhirudeen's request for help by giving him 100,000 rupees to recapture the throne.

Ziyaudeen became very friendly with Muzhirudeen and helped him extensively. A European called Dandaru Seytu was hired. He was very familiar with the functioning of the Kolkata fort and had direct access to the British governor. After a meeting, Dandaru Seytu agreed to be in charge of the operation and with the governor's help he procured two ships, another smaller boat, and soldiers, weapons, and food and drink.

During the voyage, they were hit by a storm and the vessels were separated. One went to Galle. The other ship and the small boat with Muzhirudeen aboard arrived in Male' harbour at the time of the Pleiades stars, well after the usual sailing season had ended.

People on Male' saw the ships and informed the palace. King Mohamed Imadudeen, judge Hassan Tajudeen, the official Koran reciters, religious philosophers, ministers and gentry, all went to the medu ziyaraiy (central tomb) and prayed. Then they prepared for war.


Muzhirudeen at Doonidoo 1711
The ship was now close to Male' and as it came within cannon range, firing began. The first shot from Male' destroyed the vessel's flagpost. The ship fired back at the island but without hitting even a coconut palm or a tree. All the enemy's shots went over the island. Guns were fired until sunset and darkness fell. Then the invaders withdrew to Doonidoo's reef, beyond the range of Male' cannon. This was Tuesday 11 May 1711, the seventh year of the king's reign. Odi anchored outside the Male' reef were robbed of their cargoes and the people aboard were enslaved. One night, a dinghy came up to an odi loaded with export produce and silently captured the vessel. The rebels now had three large boats, the two they arrived in, and the odi they stole.

From Doonidoo reef, Muzhirudeen sent two vessels loaded with weapons to the northern atolls to raid people there. King Mohamed Imadudeen learned of this, and two Male' odi were fitted out and loaded with weapons. Two government ministers were placed in charge. Vilufushi Ali Vazir commanded one odi, and Addu Hassan Vazir the other. These chiefs were given permission to wage war and track down the raiders.

The odi sailed off and came upon the enemy in the open sea. Vilufushi Ali Vazir called out to Addu Hassan Vazir, asking him if they should get closer to the two enemy odi and fight them. Addu Hassan Vazir went silent, keeping his head down, and then said he did not want to fight. Vilufushi Ali turned his odi around and came back to Male'. The king asked for news of what happened and Vilufushi Ali Vazir said, 'If I had been accompanied by another commander like myself, we would have returned after a battle.'

Addu Hassan Vazir was replaced with another Hassan Vazir. This new commander was the son of Moosa, grandson of Ibrahim and great grandson of Mulee Mohamed. The two odi embarked again and came across the enemy as they sailed through Malosmadulu atoll and into Miladunmadulu atoll. The raiders had landed and burnt some of the islands, murdering people and stealing their property. When the infidel enemy saw the sails of the Male' odi, they immediately cast off from the island where they were moored. In their haste, some of their men were left behind. The ships met at sea and guns were fired. Then the infidels sailed back to Muzhirudeen at Doonidoo near Male'.

Meanwhile, Male' forces landed in the island on Miladunmadulu atoll where the infidels had been moored. The stranded raiders were killed. The stolen cargoes were returned to the poor people they had been taken from. Then the odi set sail for Male'. The two commanders were greeted by the king and escorted through the island with great honour.

When the infidels returned to Muzhirudeen at Doonidoo, he would not speak to them for many days. Secretly, he sent a Maldivian to relatives in Male' for discussions. After sunset, the Maldivian landed in Male' and told Muzhirudeen's two siblings, his elder brother Hakura Manikfan and elder sister Mava Kilege, that their brother needed their help. These two met with certain members of the army and convinced them to join Muzhirudeen and help him seize the throne and kill king Imadudeen.

The two messengers returned at night with a letter for Muzhirudeen. The letter suggested that Muzhirudeen's ship should come very close to Male' and wait there: 'When you see a particular signal from us in Male', then land quickly.'

The conspirators continued their preparations, assigning people with specific targets to kill. A government-owned negro slave was delegated to kill the king. He was very strong and a huge man.

Another powerful negro, Marujan, who had been freed by the Devadoo king, was also asked for help. They said to him, 'We have agreed that we shall kill the king tonight and capture the throne. Negro Surooru will put the king to death. Will you help him carry out this task?'

Marujan listened to all they said and went straight to the king and warned him that the following night he would be killed and the plotters were going to take over the throne. The king quickly summoned the gentry, ministers and army. All were brought into his presence, except for two people who swam out to Muzhirudeen's ship.

The plotters were brought in and searched and asked about their plans. From their own mouths, the conspirators admitted everything had been instigated by their elder brother Hakura Manikfan and sister Mava Kilege.

The Ethiopian negro Surooru was executed, along with three others. The remaining plotters were chained at Male's crossroads, and then sent to various islands. Mava Kilege was exiled to her mother's island in Gan on Hadunmati atoll. When they heard how things had turned out in Male', Muzhirudeen and his forces became very frightened and promptly prepared to leave on 13 June 1711. They burnt the mosque at Viligili [west of Male'] as they left and then sailed to India where they waited until the following year.


Hassan Tajudeen and king Imadudeen repel the attack of 1712
On 17 February 1712, moslems and infidels in two ships and a boat came through Kali channel northeast of Male' and anchored in the lagoon between Hulule' and Doonidoo islands. Men landed at Funadoo island with short fat mortars (naalhey). The ammunition contained gunpowder and when it was fired, the round exploded on impact and destroyed whatever was nearby. They were lethal weapons. The invaders fired these guns at night from the time of the late evening prayer until dawn. With the help of holy God, Male' escaped any damage, though the top of a tall coconut tree was hit by a shot from those guns.

At dawn, the guns stopped firing and the enemy could not be seen or heard all day. In the darkness at midnight, they landed near the harbour wall on Male's western side armed with swords, guns, lances and all manner of fighting weapons. The enemy also had ladders made of timber. As they jumped into the water holding fuse lights, guns were fired from Male'. As soon as the invaders reached the dry beach, they began to fire their muskets. Shots from the guns rained down and reached right inside the island.

The Male' defenders at the beach were defeated and most of them ran away until only seven remained. Among them were Moosa Vazir the son of Digumabadeyri Takurufan, and Matvaree Famuladeyri Vazir. All seven of the men were killed while the others ran away and hid.

The infidels came into the island with their guns firing and drums beating. They burnt houses as they advanced and reached the new gun-tower that had been commanded by Hagura Manik. He had fled and concealed himself somewhere, leaving behind his men and the gunpowder, ammunition and other weapons. His men saw the island was deserted and thinking the enemy had won, they lost the will to fight. As the enemy advanced towards them, the men in the new gun-tower ran away and hid wherever they could. The men from the big fort's gun-tower ran away too and sheltered in the mosques. Except for about twenty-five people, all the army and locals were in hiding.

The infidels were burning everything and firing guns as they came towards Mafanu ward gate. Maldivians had already shut the gate and secured it. They packed gunpowder and small pieces of metal into a cannon and aimed it at the invaders through a hole in the wall. The infidels reached the gate and stopped, just as the cannon fired. Many men were killed and wounded by the metal. The surviving infidels, including their wounded, ran into the new gun-tower, turned all its guns onto the island and began to fire. Thanks to the divine will of holy God, the barrels of the guns were aimed too high and none of the rounds hit anything. The invaders lit a fire in front of the new gun-tower and stayed there.

The king was very sad and worried when judge Hassan Tajudeen came up and said, 'You should not sit here like this. Go and do battle.'

Encouraged, Imadudeen emerged from the palace armed with a sword and shield. He walked out from the Sakarangna gate, and the judge approached him again and grabbed hold of his hand, saying, 'It is not a good idea to go out to them like this, your highness. Make the infidels come to you instead. You should go back into the palace and beat the drum of happiness so people will think you are winning.'

The drums were beaten as Tajudeen advised, and the people emerged. They were ordered to arm themselves and chase the infidels away. The men went off with their weapons but soon became frightened and retreated again. Ordered to attack once more, they returned in the same way. Now the king was furious and he tried to go out and attack the enemy himself. However, the judge stopped him and treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree sent a group of militia to build another gun-tower in front of the one occupied by the enemy. Mattresses and similar materials were used as walls for the tower.

When it was ready, the Maldivians began to fire their guns and many infidels were killed. As the enemy's casualties mounted, the survivors did not know how to escape and they climbed onto the wall and jumped, splitting their heads open and breaking their arms and legs. Crying, screaming and shouting, they threw their guns and swords onto the beach and plunged into the sea and climbed out on the harbour wall. When their ship arrived to rescue them, Male' guns began firing at the vessel. It was hit, but the ship got back to Doonidoo reef. A short time later, the invaders left for Bengal. This was on Tuesday 23 February 1712 in the eighth year of the king's reign.

It is said that Muzhirudeen ran way from the infidel British and went to the ruler of Hindustan, Farukshia, and stayed with him for three years. After this, no reliable news was heard about him.


Umar Hafiz and the king's wife Amina plot for the throne, 1711-1715
In the second year of his reign, Imadudeen remarried Amina Kabafan whom he had previously divorced. Amina Kabafan's mother was Mariyam Kabafan, the daughter of Fenfushi Kuraha Hassan Velana Kateeb. Amina Kabafan's father was Goidoo Ali Doshimeyna Takurufan. When the king married Amina Kabafan for the second time, she was named Kabadi Kilegefan. Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to a son of the king, but a short time later the child died. However, on the night of 11 September 1708, Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to another son. This prince was named Ibrahim.

On the 13 January 1712, Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to a daughter called Aishath Kabafan. On 14 January 1717, she gave birth to another son named Ali.


When the elder son Ibrahim was seven years old, the king summoned the ministers and gentry and received a promise from them that Kabadi Kilegefan's son Ibrahim would succeed him. After this, the king's elder wife, also called Amina, felt that if the king died and her rival's elder son became king, she and her friends would lose their influence.

At that time, the treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree and this Amina were very attracted to each other. They started a secret friendship and then fell madly in love. They decided that if the king died, the other wife's son should be removed from the palace and not given the throne. Both of them deceived the king, treating him kindly and carrying out his orders. They hid expensive and high quality royal property and made preparations to take over the monarchy if the king died. The king himself was not aware of any of this. He believed every word they said to him. They told lies to the king and accused prince Ibrahim's friends of disloyalty. Believing what he heard, the king removed many people from the positions they had been given, and distanced himself from them.

Umar's faction were telling the king they were truly loyal. The positions lost by others were given to them and in this way their supporters increased and the supporters of the king's son decreased. Hassan Tajudeen did not join Umar's faction and they were angry with him. They complained to the king about Tajudeen and Hussein Afeefudeen and their friends and companions, and told the king these people did not love him and that they were jealous. The king almost began to believe what they said was true.

The intrigue continued for four years until at last holy God exposed the plot against Ibrahim's succession by Umar and the king's elder wife Amina. Umar was exiled to Fua Mulak but kept in high honour and provided with food and drink. While he was there, his enemies in Male' - Ismail Vazir, Hura Daharada Vazir, Mish-Keelu Kaloa and Ibrahim's mother's financial advisor Abu Bakuru - all confirmed that the king's elder wife had flirted in a friendly way with Umar.

When the king heard this evidence, he became furious. Cruel and powerful soldiers were sent to Fua Mulak and they punished Umar, beating him unconscious. They pummelled him until he was just a pool of blood and then returned to Male'. The people from Fua Mulak treated him with medicine and he recovered but with very large scars. Umar was officially exiled on 8 February 1716. He no longer received enough food and had to live in a house with no light at night. After ten months, Hassan Tajudeen appealed for mercy on his behalf, and an order was made that all nobles in exile were to be treated properly. The people of Fua Mulak began to respect and look after Umar again.

A year and four months later, the king's elder wife was taken ill and her condition worsened each day. The king was also seriously ill and people began to think he would not recover. Male' islanders were divided into two factions. One group was led by Hussein Velana Manikfan, the maternal brother of Mizhirudeen. Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna Takurufan headed the other group. Each faction was ready to install its leader as king, but meanwhile the king's health improved.

Hussein Velana approached king Imadudeen and said, 'Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna Takurufan and his followers are ready to take over the throne.' The king immediately exiled the Doshimeyna and his family to Fenfushi island. His son-in-law Hura Hussein Dahara Vazir was exiled to Havaru Tinadoo [Tinadoo on Huvadu atoll] and Ali Dahara Vazir was exiled to Gan on Hadunmati atoll. These events occurred on 20 October 1717.

A short time later, the king's elder wife Kabadi Kilegefan died on Wednesday 10 November 1717. She was buried in a tomb built for her on the western side of the Friday mosque. The king recovered from his illness.


Changes to Islamic customs in Male' 1705-1711
During Imadudeen's reign, new customs were established:
Isha prayer time was set at one hour and twenty minutes after sunset. Hassan Tajudeen was instructed to make observations by going to the beach in the cool and hot seasons, and precisely measuring the time with an hour-glass. First, the hour-glass was assembled, and then kept on an areca palmwood bench in front of the clerk's bench in the palace. Hassan Tajudeen was instructed to turn over the hour-glass at sunset. This was done in March 1707. Previously, Maldivians would perform the isha prayer one hour after sunset.

The recitation of the salwat, ('Praise for Allah, His Prophet and his disciples'), began to be recited from the minaret each Friday before noon. That was on the advice of Hassan Tajudeen and it began in May 1711.

At the suggestion of Hassan Tajudeen, the call to prayer was made from the minaret for the first time. The isha prayer time and the exact moment of dawn were also checked and announced by Hassan Tajudeen. The first call to prayer was to be done when the planet Venus was in the tenth degree; then after Venus rose, there was the second call to prayer. In most seasons, there is 25 degrees between the rise of Venus and sunrise. Before this change, Maldivians had performed the prayer before dawn, making the call for prayer an hour earlier.

Acts not acceptable to Islam were also banned. Maldivians used to gather in a maulood hall, bringing flowers of pandanus, unimaa and henna, along with stone apples, sliced sugar beet, pomegranates, bananas, citrus and sticky rice and many other things like that. It was all heaped into the middle of the maulood hall, and people would sit around and stay awake all night. This practice was banned in 1705/6 at the request of Hassan Tajudeen.

The custom of cooking and distributing creamy rice soup on Ashura day was also banned. It had been a time when the aristocrats visited each other's houses, the middle-classes met in the same way, and the common people also called on one another. This had been made a custom on the day the noble Hussein [grandson of the Prophet] had died, but in 1708/9, it was forbidden.


Fires in Male' 1714 and 1717
Many fires occurred in Imadudeen's reign, including a blaze in the upper floor of a high stone house on Friday 19 January 1714. Another two-storey house built of timber was burnt on 18 May.

In 1717, all the buildings were burnt on the northern side of the road between the Loajehi palace and Ranjehi palace. Other places in Henveiru ward also caught fire. The area between king Dana Mohamed's mosque and the treasurer's house went up, and south of there Kabafan's palace caught fire along with many buildings on its western side. The house of Yagooth Kalege's daughter Aminath and other dwellings were destroyed. Many houses were also incinerated on the eastern side of the palace of the king's wife Kabadi Kilegefan. This all happened on 7 May 1717.


King Imadudeen - oppressive and withdrawn before his death in 1721
In the last part of his reign, the king became a man who lacked compassion and had little respect for people. Property was looted, inheritances cancelled and extra demands were placed on people. People were told to cook builders' lime and bring it to the king, and they were ordered to do many things without payment such as cutting wood, and breaking and collecting flat corals. Everything had to be brought to the king.

The military was also given heavy labour, and told to build forts, erect walls and reinforce other buildings. Although these things were done, attacks from the enemy did not stop.

The king married Aishath Kamana, the daughter of Kuda Haji from the armed forces. This girl was only a young child and she was kept in a separate house. The king stayed with her most of the time.

During his later years, he never listened to anyone's complaints and never checked on people's welfare. The king kept away from his people and it seemed that the rules governing a leader's behaviour, laid down by the holy Prophet, were forgotten. The king passed away on Wednesday 22 October 1721 at the age of sixty-two. Hassan Tajudeen composed a poem and inscribed it on the wall of the king's tomb with the date of his death. Imadudeen had reigned for 17 years, four months and eight days, and his son Ibrahim was made the new king on Thursday 23 October 1721.


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