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'A Police & Military Backed Coup d'etat - Ousting of President Mohamed Nasheed from Power - by Ameen Faisal and Mohamed Aslam 2012

Ousting of President Mohamed Nasheed from Power
by Ameen Faisal and Mohamed Aslam
Full text and photographs from the Maldivian Democratic Party official submission to the National Committee of Inquiry, June 2012
Original report - PDF download 13.4mb (right click:save link as)

from the document:

'The findings to date reveal that during a meeting held in September 2011 between council members of Progressive Party of the Maldives (PPM) and a retired Warrant Officer grade 1, a retired Brigadier General of the Maldives National Defense Force and a retired Deputy Commissioner of Police, met in PPM council member Maaz Saleem's apartment.
In this meeting, the Warrant Officer grade 1 stated that the only way to oust President Mohamed Nasheed from power would be for approximately 500 police and military personnel to come out and protest in Republican Square. Furthermore, in the meeting, a means to achieving this goal was discussed. During this discussion the retired Deputy Police Commissioner assured the group that this would indeed be possible, and PPM interim Vice President Umar Naseer questioned the group on how to execute the plan.'

'... word was spreading quickly within MNDF intelligence that Paradise Island resort would soon send in food and drink for all the protesters at Republican Square.'

'Majority of the members spoke about the importance of bringing the Foreign Ministry and Finance Ministry under the control of the Police.'

'When the President finally began to make his way to the room prepared for press, Mohamed Nazim said to Mohamed Fayaz, 'Let's go to Seagull (a local cafe) and celebrate!''



Planning a Coup d'etat

23 December Alliance

Detainment of Judge Abdulla Mohamed by the Defense Force

Operation Liberty Shield

Beginning of the Protests

Some Senior Officers of the MPS Voicing Anti-Government Sentiments

Publicly Announcing a Planned Coup d'etat

Monday, 6 February 2012

Receiving Information of Possible Mutiny by the Police Force

Unlawful Gathering of Police Officers

President Nasheed Arrives at the Military (MNDF)

President Nasheed Meets with Mutinying Police Officers

Brutality of Mutinying Police towards Civilians

Confrontation between the Mutinying Police and the MNDF

The Appointment of a Commissioner of Police and Take-over of Executive Powers

Military Loses Control and Command

The President of Maldives being ordered to Resign and Mohamed Nazim taking up Command over Security Forces

Taking over of MNBC1

Active Participation of Political Leaders at the Republican Square

Attack on Police Headquarters and Senior Officers

Calling for the President's resignation outside Police Headquarters

Receiving News of the President's Decision to Resign

Abdullah Fairoosh's meeting with Senior Political Leaders

The Arrival of the President at the President's Office

The President's Last Moments at the President's Office


This report was compiled based on the findings of research done regarding the events that led to the forced resignation of Maldives' first democratically elected President H.E. Mr. Mohamed Nasheed, by a coup d'etat backed by mutinous factions of the police on 6 and 7 February 2012.

This report is based on eyewitness, first-hand accounts, statements, media reports, videos, audio recordings, photographs and evidence from previously unreleased video footage. No medium or documents of which the primary source is unknown has been used in compiling this report. The sources of information used in compiling this report include individuals who were active, senior members of the government on 7 February 2012 and members of the police and military forces.

The report is divided into two sections:
1. Documentation of the actions of various individuals in the Maldives throughout the conception, planning and implementation phases of the coup carried out on 7 February 2012;
2. Documentation of the acts committed by the mutinous factions of the police and military forces on 6 and 7 February 2012, including the unlawful and criminal aspects of their actions.

Every effort has been made in the preparation of this report to present the events of 6 and 7 February 2012 in chronological order, to the best of our ability.

The main focus of the report is on the role played by the police and military in the implementation of the coup on 6 and 7 February 2012. The research and findings regarding the individuals who directly participated in the planning and execution of this regrettable event in the history of the Maldives is ongoing. A detailed report of the involvement by the conspirators of the coup will soon be made public. Furthermore, research is currently being carried out investigating the events that unfolded after the resignation of President Mohamed Nasheed, including the actions of state institutions and government officials amid these tumultuous events.

It is of the utmost important for historians, legal experts, political analysts, military strategists, researchers and students of such disciplines to conduct academic research and write documentation and analysis about the specific aspects of this major event that took place in this nation on 6 and 7 February 2012. Such work would help citizens and political leaders identify the necessary steps needed to ensure such events are not repeated.

While the process of compiling this report was underway, the Commission of National Inquiry (CoNI) formed by Dr. Mohamed Waheed Hassan Manik's government published a 'Timeline of Events' claiming it was part of the commission's work. Since this timeline report had to be published in an incomplete form, based solely on the research and findings done to date, this can only be seen as an effort to mislead the public. No statements or comments from President Mohamed Nasheed or any of his family members were sought in the compilation of the timeline, and the authors of the report were appointed to the CoNI by the very individuals under investigation, thus constituting a conflict of interest.

Planning a Coup d'etat
There is significant evidence substantiating the implication of many people in the planning and execution of the unconstitutional takeover of the lawful, democratically-elected government of the Maldives by a police and military-led coup d'etat.

The findings to date reveal that during a meeting held in September 2011 between council members of Progressive Party of the Maldives (PPM) and a retired Warrant Officer grade 1, a retired Brigadier General of the Maldives National Defense Force and a retired Deputy Commissioner of Police, met in PPM council member Maaz Saleem's apartment.

In this meeting, the Warrant Officer grade 1 stated that the only way to oust President Mohamed Nasheed from power would be for approximately 500 police and military personnel to come out and protest in Republican Square. Furthermore, in the meeting, a means to achieving this goal was discussed. During this discussion the retired Deputy Police Commissioner assured the group that this would indeed be possible, and PPM interim Vice President Umar Naseer questioned the group on how to execute the plan.

Despite the doubts raised by Umar Naseer, the participants of the meeting discussed the matter at length and decided to work to create an environment that would facilitate their goal. After this meeting the above mentioned retired Warrant Officer grade 1 held a long meeting with one of the most well-known Islamic sheikhs in Maldives at the office of the Adhaalath Party.

The '23 December' Alliance comprised of opposition political parties and some religious NGO's, may well be the outcome of this meeting.

23 December Alliance
Under the above mentioned agenda, the alliance of NGOs and opposition political parties planned a demonstration under the theme of 'Maldivians in defense of Islam.' The excuses behind holding the demonstration included the monuments erected in Addu City by neighboring South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries during the SAARC Summit, the comments made by UN's Human Rights Ambassador on the issue of flogging, and the talk of Israel's national airline being given the permission to start scheduled flights to Maldives by opposition parties and media. According to sources, Gasim Ibrahim, a wealthy businessman and leader of Jumhooree Party, was the biggest sponsor of the event.

It must be noted that the demonstration held by 23 December Alliance under the theme of 'Maldivians in defense of Islam' was attended by a large number of people and that more political figures and leaders addressed the protesters from the podium than religious scholars. It is evident that PPM interim vice president Umar Naseer saw the protest as an opportunity to overthrow the government and recruited protesters to come out onto the streets. Some members of the alliance disagreed stating the Maldives did not face that particular danger on that day.

Thus as the coup did not commence on that day, the organizers of the December 23 demonstration decided to hold a second large gathering on 24 February 2012 in the name of a 'Mahasinta' (conference) to execute direct action in order to overthrow President Mohamed Nasheed.

Detainment of Judge Abdulla Mohamed by the Defense Force
While the Alliance had decided to hold a large demonstration, dubbed a 'conference', to oust the lawfully elected government on 24 February 2012, Judge Abdulla Mohamed, a figure who was known for his ties to opposition figures and who was accused by the police and the public of hijacking the criminal justice system, blocked the Judicial Service Commission (JSC) from taking disciplinary action against him after being proven guilty of one of the charges levied against him by the JSC.

Stating that the Criminal Justice System and National Security and Stability would be jeopardized if the judge remained seated without facing disciplinary action, the Home Ministry requested the Defense Ministry to take Judge Abdulla under military custody until a way to implement disciplinary action against him could be found.

This opened up an opportunity for opposition politicians to work towards expediting the results that were planned to be achieved through the 'conference' scheduled on 24 February 2012.

Operation Liberty Shield
Operation 'Liberty Shield' was launched from Male' Area Command on 16 January 2012, in preparation of any unrest created by the opposition political forces in the wake of the arrest of Judge Abdulla Mohamed, which may compromise the peace and stability in Male'. After the commencement of operation Liberty Shield, the alert status of Male' area was designated as 'Yellow 2' by the military.

Alert level Yellow 2 is implemented when the military is brought to a status of alert when events that may disrupt the peace and stability of the country are anticipated or information about such events is received. MNDF's Joint Staff of the Integrated Headquarters were appointed for the course of the operation as aide to the Male' Area Commander.

The Joint Staff were Lieutenant Colonel Mohamed Shahid (Director, Administration and Services), Major Mohamed Adnan (Director of Intelligence), Colonel Mohamed Ziyad (Director of Operations), Lieutenant Colonel Mohamed Fayaz, 'Papa', (Director of Logistics), Colonel Hamid Shafig (Director of Plans and Policy) and Colonel Abdul Rasheed (Director of Civil Military Relations).

In addition, during the execution of Liberty Shield, commanders of Fire and Rescue Services, Special Forces and Explosives and Ordinance Disposals worked at the Joint Operation Centre aiding Male' Area Commander Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi.

During this time, Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah Majdee was serving as the deputy for Male' Area Commander Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi.

Marine Deployment Units 1, 2, 3, 4, Mobile Quick Response Squad and Squadron of Coastguard were working under Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah.

Fire and Rescue Services, Special Forces, Special Protection Group, Service Corps, Corps of Engineers and the Explosives Ordinance unit aided the Male' Area Command.

To further strengthen the Male' Area Command, 300 extra officers were assigned to the command even at the start of the operation.

Beginning of the Protests
After Abdulla Mohamed was taken into military custody, at a council meeting of PPM attended by the party's interim leader Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, it was discussed and decided to carry out 'continuous' protests, taking advantage of the opportunity that was presented to them.

From then on, swift action was taken to ensure the execution of the plan to bring out 500 police and military personnel to Republican Square in protest. Efforts to identify the individual military and police officers who would be willing to pledge allegiance to the opposition were also swiftly underway.

A former Colonel, Mohamed Nazim, was assigned with the task of identifying the military officers who would join with opposition parties and to build connections with them. Former Deputy Commissioner of Police Abdulla Riyaz was assigned with the same task within the police force.

According to intelligence by the beginning of February 2012 some members of the police and military (including officers) had developed various connections with opposition political figures. The military personnel who swore allegiance to the opposition included Brigadier General Ahmed Shiyam, Colonel Mohamed Nasheed, Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf and Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa). Military Intelligence was also aware that Brigadier General Ahmed Shiyam held secret meetings with Colonel (retired) Mohamed Nazim and opposition figures during this period.

Some sources from the Intelligence department report that Colonel (retired) Mohamed Nazim also contacted middle-ranked officers and other senior military officers in a bid to increase numbers of opposition supporters. Sources reveal that as a result, some Military Marine Corps personnel had pledged their allegiance to him. Furthermore, they were supplying information of the strategies and movements of the military to Colonel (retired) Mohamed Nazim and Umar Naseer.

According to Intelligence, one of the tasks assigned to the military personnel who joined hands with the opposition was to slander President Nasheed and discredit him amongst their colleagues in the military. Another of their tasks was to convince more military personnel to join them.

The police officers who swore allegiance to the opposition include:
Assistant Commissioner Hussein Waheed, Chief Superintendent Abdullah Fairoosh, Chief Superintendent Hassan Habeeb, Chief Superintendent Ahmed Saudee, Chief Superintendent Abdul Mannaan Yusuf, Inspector Mohamed Daood (brother-in-law of PPM council member Ahmed Nihan Hussein Manik), Superintendent Ahmed Mohamed ('Two-Four'), Superintendent Mohamed Jamsheed, Sub Inspector Azeem Waheed and Inspector Shameem from the Special Operations (S.O.) unit of the police.

Officers in the S.O. unit especially, were outwardly displaying their discontent and hatred of President Mohamed Nasheed. Some S.O. officers were sharing technical information with the opposition during their 22 nights of protests. During this period, disciplinary action was also taken towards an officer from S.O. when the Commissioner of Police discovered that during a phone-call made by the officer to PPM parliamentary group member Ahmed Mahloof around midnight on 23 January 2012, proudly assuring him that MDP protesters had been badly beaten during the dispersal of a protest near the Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) and that they will make sure that MDP will be destroyed and finished off. Ahmed Mahloof even confirmed this during the opposition protest on the following day.

Furthermore, during one of the 22 nights of protests, a police officer who was among those seen to control the protests was penalized after he was discovered to have sent SMS messages to Umar Naseer with information revealing the strength of the police that night. According to Intelligence information, police and military officers who had pledged allegiance to the opposition were relaying information to the opposition about all movements of President Mohamed Nasheed during this period.

One of the instances that revealed the attitude of the police force towards the government and President Mohamed Nasheed was seen from the disrespectful behaviour of S.O. officers, including making disruptive noises while President Nasheed was addressing them at Iskandar Koshi on 26 January 2012. At the time, some senior officials rendered these acts as being 'cool.' No disciplinary action was taken towards these officers even after the Commissioner of Police was approached with complaints from within the Intelligence department. Moreover, death threats and profanities were written about the senior police officers on the walls of the toilets used by S.O. officers in Iskandar Koshi-2.

The continuous anti-government protests held by the opposition from 16 January 2012 were usually held near the MMA area. Every night, the main message delivered from the speeches of the senior leaders of the protests were aimed at changing the minds of the army and police. Security forces were being continuously fed with the message that they should together stop obeying the 'unlawful' orders of President Mohamed Nasheed and that if they did follow President Nasheed's orders, they were surely on the 'wrong path'.

These protests were broadcast live on privately owned TV Stations including VTV and DhiTV. These feeds were regularly aired and viewed from inside police and military stations.

The number of personnel in the Maldives Police Service (MPS) willing to assist the opposition parties was made apparent when police planned to violently disperse a mass protest as one of the events of MDP's 'insaafuge dhathuru' (Journey to Justice) campaign held on 17 January 2012. The police officers who planned this were reported to have said that they would erase the very name of MDP on that day. These plans were communicated by S.O. officers to people who were presumably in support of opposition parties.

Some Senior Officers of the MPS Voicing Anti-Government Sentiments
On 17 January 2012, ten senior police officers met with the Commissioner of Police and stated that their political inclination was against President Nasheed's government. These ten officers were Chief Superintendents Hassan Habeeb, Abdulla Fairoosh, Hussain Adam, Ahmed Saudhee, Superintendents Ahmed Mohamed (Two Four), Mohamed Jamsheed, Ahmed Abdul Rahman, Abdulla Ahmed, Chief Inspectors Abdul Mannan Yoosuf and Mohamed Rasheed (Monsy).

This meeting was organized by Abdulla Fairoosh who also played a key role in bringing the coup. At the meeting, Fairoosh also said that if the Commissioner of Police would resign, he could be awarded with a medal. Abdulla Fairoosh is a strong supporter of, and holds close connections to, Dr. Hassan Saeed, the leader of the Dhivehi Quamee Party. From this point onwards, individual political views were very openly stated within the police forces.

Following this, questions raised against breaking up opposition-led protests in the name of protecting Judge Abdulla Mohamed, destruction caused to the state's central bank, damages caused to the house of a minister, vandalism of state property and physical attacks on police officers by attempting to set them on fire were all regarded as acceptable acts by the opposition-sympathetic S.O. police unit.

Additionally on many other occasions, even after countless commands from senior officers, police refused to break up protests which had escalated to dangerous levels, and created a space for politicians to create chaos in the country. This resulted in the frightening events of 7 February that took place.

Publicly Announcing a Planned Coup D'etat
Two important events were noticed during the protests that went on for twenty-two days and which affirmed that the opposition forces were making plans to overthrow President Nasheed's government, and that aspects of this were intended for the Police and MNDF to execute, and also that the Vice President too had a role in this.

The first of these events is the plan that Deputy Leader of the PPM, Umar Naseer, shared when addressing the anti-government protesters near the MMA building on the night of 23 January 2012. In elaborating on this plan, Umar Naseer stated:
'We need around 2,000 volunteers. These 2,000 volunteers will be split into units of 30 people. All that needs to be done is that when we give the go-ahead, the particular 30 or 5 people that we point out, need to promptly go where we ask and do it. Nobody will be aware of when we will do this. So the whole security force will be inside the headquarters ready in helmets. Once we do this, if we can tire them out, they will be forced to surrender. Once they do, we will go through here and climb up over that wall. How many of you can climb over a 15 feet wall once I lean a ladder against it? Raise your hands! Excellent! Once I lean a 12 feet long ladder against the 15 feet high wall, you need to climb up it in 30 seconds. If 50 ladders are leaned against the wall of a centre I suggest, and if one person climbs up each ladder in 30 seconds, 2000 people will be inside there. I am certain that if 2,000 of our volunteers climbed up the ladders and into a place I say, then the people inside there will be with us. This is absolutely certain to me.
'I am stating this for your information, and also for your information. From today, (I) will make this protest into a protest which will yield results! We know how nations overthrow their governments! Everything that is needed to overthrow the government of this nation has now been arranged!'

This is evidence that Naseer called out publicly for a coup.

The second event that was identified is the meeting held between the leaders of the 22-night protests and Vice President Dr. Mohamed Waheed Hassan Manik at his official residence, M. Hilaaleege, in the early hours of 30 January 2012.

Meeting held between the leaders of the 22-night protests and Maldives Vice President Dr. Mohamed Waheed Hassan Manik at his official residence, M. Hilaaleege, in the early hours of 30 January 2012.
The Vice President meets Opposition Leaders in his official residence, M. Hilaaleege, in the early hours of 30 January 2012. (Dr. Waheed, Umar Naseer, Sheikh Imran, Asadhullah Shaafee, Shameem, Abdulla Mohamed, Sandhaanu Ahammaidhy, Fuad Gasim, Ahmed Mohamed, Faiz, K.D., Maaz Saleem.)

At this meeting, the opposition leaders shared with the Vice President the actions they required of him, and got his acceptance. The actions they asked for were:
1. To lead a 'people's presidency' if the post of president became vacant 'through whatever reason'.
2. To establish order and peace in the Maldives, to bring an end to any disorders in the country, and to continue being President without handing in his resignation until 2013.
3. To not resign regardless of how much pressure he might be exposed to.

In addition to this, it was stated during the meeting that the coalition extended its full support to the Vice President, and that there was no longer any reason to accept President Nasheed as the leader of the country. Following this meeting, Umar Naseer addressed the police and MNDF via media, giving the following message:
'Tonight we call out to the police and the MNDF soldiers to pledge allegiance to Vice President Mohamed Waheed Hassan Manik and to here and now stop obeying any orders that come from Mohamed Nasheed.'

Monday, 6 February 2012
Monday, 6 February 2012 was a day not out of the ordinary where the President and his Cabinet attended their offices to work on their respective areas on ongoing projects and assignments towards fulfilling MDP's manifesto and policies. As the sun set on that day, there were no indications of anything unusual in the atmosphere in Male'. As any other day, they went home with the presumption that the nation and government would run smoothly as per routine, on the following day. No signs of frustration or nervousness from the President nor from any of his Cabinet ministers were observed by their colleagues nor by the people who met them that day. The government employees returned home after official work hours, leaving behind pending tasks with the assurance that the next day would also be a normal working day.

During the first quarter of the evening, opposition political parties and the coalition of religious NGOs gathered to protest as they had for the past 22 nights. The protests began at the Artificial Beach area. Similar to the previous 3 or 4 nights, the protesters that were gathered in the area were not only comprised of anti-government demonstrators. Some pro-government supporters were also there to voice their expressions against the opposition demonstrators at the Artificial Beach. Maldives Police Services S.O. unit and normal uniformed Police (Blues) were active at the scene. Opposition protesters and government supporters were actively engaged in a fierce war of words while VTV and DhiTV were telecasting the scenes live as they had done on previous nights.

Around 10 or 10.30 in the evening, while the protest was ongoing, a command was made to move the police away from the scene and to send a riot control unit of the military in their place. However, despite orders, police continuously stated their refusal to withdraw. At that time, senior police officials present at the Artificial Beach area include the S.O. Commanding Officer Superintendent Ahmed Abdul Rahman, Superintendent Ibrahim Manik (Lady Ibrahim Manik), Superintendent Hassan Aseeth, Superintendent Adnan Anees, and Commanding Officer of the Operations Directorate and Chief Superintendent Farhad Fikry.

Some of the above mentioned senior officers were sent to the scene to pressure the police officers to follow the commands of Commissioner of Police, as they were disobeying orders. As could be seen on live coverage by the television channels, a troop of military officers in riot gear arrived at the Artificial Beach area around 11.30 in the evening. The leading commander of this troop was Captain Amanullah Rasheed. Once they arrived at the Artificial Beach and organized their barricades in between the protesters, it was observed that the police left the scene. The police left the area upon receiving orders to assemble at Iskandharu Koshi. However, instead of going to Iskandharu Koshi, they headed towards the Police Headquarters near Republican Square.

Soon after the Artificial Beach area was brought under Army control, at around 11.45 pm, the military officers at the Artificial Beach area pushed back up to the Henveiru Saw Mill area. Once the military left the Artificial Beach area, there was a heated war of words and the situation escalated into an exchange of stones and rocks between protesters from opposing sides. The chaos continued for about 8 to 10 minutes until it was put to an end around 12.00am by efforts of the military officers who returned to the Artificial Beach area.

Just as the protest scene was brought under military control, some of the police officers who were gathered near their headquarters (a large number of S.O. Police), boarded three of their 17 vehicles and headed towards the Artificial Beach area, openly expressing anti-MDP sentiments. However, only two of these vehicles were able to make it to the Artificial Beach area. The third vehicle was prevented from going when a senior police officer commanded the driver to stop. Nevertheless, some of the police officers inside abandoned the vehicle and went shouting and running towards the Artificial Beach area. Meanwhile the military had the protest area under their control.

Once the police returned to the Artificial Beach area, they charged and attacked pro-government supporters screaming and shouting profanity at the military officers and calling for the destruction of MDP. A video clip of S.O. Corporal Mohamed Niyaz, in plain clothes, sitting on a motor cycle, angrily telling the S.O. police at the scene to arrest the Commissioner of Police Faseeh, using profane language, has widely been circulated.

It is important to note that when the police arrived in a rage at the Artificial Beach area, Alliance supporters gathered in front of DRP office were identifying MDP members. Around 12.15am, it was reported that some police officers were headed south from Boduthakurufaanu Magu and west from Ameenee Magu, almost at a sprint, calling for the destruction of MDP members and voicing their intentions of ransacking the MDP Haruge. After the above mentioned incidents, around 12.17 am, anti-government protesters officially announced that their protest is over for the night.

The Military Intelligence was receiving information that some S.O. police officers were heading towards the MDP Haruge from the Artificial Beach area. The military commanders believed that the enraged police officers were headed towards the MDP Haruge with intentions of causing harm and damage. Therefore, in order to prevent any turmoil that may take place at the MDP Haruge area, a troop was sent to the scene under the command of First Lieutenant Salih Moosa. However this troop was able to make it to the MDP Haruge only after the S.O. police had left the scene.

On the way to the MDP Haruge located on Ameenee Magu, the police officers searched inside a restaurant named Tuscaloosa on Boduthakurufaanu Magu, searching for MDP supporters. When the police officers reached the MDP Haruge, they brutally attacked MDP supporters and shouted profanities at them.

The Home Ministry's State Minister Mohamed Naeem (Monaza Naeem) was amongst those who were badly injured by the police. After brutally attacking the people and vandalizing equipment and premises of the MDP, the police returned to Republican Square, chanting a national song which translates: 'for the holy religion of Islam and for the Nation'.

When the above mentioned incidents were taking place at the Artificial Beach area and the MDP Haruge, the MNDF Military Headquarters were being prepared under different degrees of national security alert. From 07.00 pm onwards the Military Headquarters, 'Bandaara Koshi', was at national security alert Yellow 2 status and around 12.11 am, they sounded the alert siren. Then at 12.20 am, the alert level was raised to 'Amber' inside the MNDF Headquarters. Alert level Amber is designated for instances where the military prepares for an anticipated terrorist attack.

Within ten minutes of Amber alert, the alert level of the Military Headquarters was raised to 'Red' alert status. Alert level Red signifies a situation in which the military are to prepare themselves for war, and is the highest level of alert in MNDF. From then onwards, on the day of 7 February 2012, until the President resigned, all the MNDF stations in Male' were in a state of Red Alert.

Whenever such a state of alert is established, according to the MNDF regulations, there are certain protocols and procedures they are required to follow according to the level of alert. Thus in the situation of an Amber alert status or any higher level of alert, instructions given for the preparation of military personnel stipulated that they must all report to their respective MNDF Stations and must all be in combat uniform. Though this is clearly stated in the MNDF General Regulations, some military personnel, especially high-ranking officers were observed to be out of uniform and in casual attire throughout the evening and on the morning of 7 February, both inside and outside the Military Headquarters.

Special Protection Group (SPG) Commanding Officer Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf and Colonel Mohamed Nasheed were observed in plain clothes outside the Military Headquarters throughout the evening of 6 February and also on the morning of February 6. It must also be noted that they did not once enter the MNDF Headquarters during this period of time. Given the fact that Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf was the Commanding Officer of the SPG and given that the peace and stability of Male' was compromised on 6 and 7 February, his main objective should have been to increase protection of the President. However, he seemed at ease despite the situation and could be seen active though in a calm state in front of Military Headquarters in casual attire during the entire event, creating doubts over his presumed intentions.

According to information given by several military officers, many low ranking officers were in a state of confusion as they did not receive any proper instructions throughout the evening of February 6 and the morning of February 7.

Receiving Information of Possible Mutiny by the Police Force
On the night of the 6 February 2012, the Male' Area Commander was in the Military Operations Centre with all his joint staff, just as he had been during the 22 nights leading up to it.

The Defense Minister Tholhath Ibrahim had requested that Brigadier General Mohamed Didi and Colonel Mohamed Ziyad both meet him at 8.30 pm by the flag post in MNDF Headquarters (Bandaara Koshi). During the meeting with the above-mentioned officers, the Defense Minister relayed to them that he has come to the knowledge that certain police officers have planned to carry out a coup d'etat against the government that night. He also said that the main players in the coup operation are members of the Special Operations (S.O.) unit of the MPS and that there is a possibility that some military personnel may also participate.

The Defense Minister then asked Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi to arrange a means to conduct a meeting with the Lieutenant Colonel and all officers above him. The meeting was held approximately 30 minutes later, where the Defense Minister conveyed to the senior officers the information of the coup d'etat planned for that night and that some military personnel may also join the police mutiny. The Defense Minister then ordered all the officers present at the meeting to gear up in their combat uniforms and to assume a state of alert.

Unlawful Gathering of Police Officers
Although the anti-government protests held at Artificial Beach was announced to be concluded for the night at 12.17 am, about 200 to 300 opposition protesters gathered near the MMA building and commenced protesting, after police officers had staged a strike at Republican Square after vandalizing the MDP headquarters and inhumanly attacking the people present there at the time.

Initially, about 40 police officers were gathered at Republican Square in protest against the government. These officers stayed separately from the other police officers who were scattered in small groups all over Republican Square. The presence of S.O. officers who belonged to the ‘Papa Platoon', which was off duty that night, was noted. The S.O. police gathered there were demanding that the Commissioner of Police meet them and give them his word that he would not give them 'any more illegal orders', and to give them full assurance that no disciplinary or legal action would be taken against the police officers for their actions earlier that night at the Artificial Beach and MDP Headquarters.

Meanwhile, the Commissioner of Police was inside the MNDF headquarters (Bandara Koshi) with senior MNDF officers. The Commissioner of Police continuously insisted that the police officers who had joined the mutiny and disobeyed the commands of their superiors, had violated the Police Act and were involved in a coup against the government. With this reason, the Commissioner of Police decided not to meet the officers that were gathered at Republican Square.

Hence, since the acts of the police officers assembled at Republican Square were clearly against the Police Act, their Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct, the Chief Superintendent of Police Farhad Fikry advised the officers to leave Republican Square and assemble at Iskandhar Koshi. Despite his advice and assurance that the Commissioner of Police would meet them at Iskandhar Koshi, the officers refused to heed this advice.

Another significant detail is that Sergeant Abdullah Firshan (currently a Station Inspector following double promotion), who was on leave at the time, and Sergeant Abdullah Ibrahim Didi (Didi) (currently a Station Inspector) who had been transferred to the Police Academy due to a disciplinary problem two weeks prior to 7 February 2012, had joined the police officers gathered at Republican Square and were playing a lead role in this coup.

Tactical Commanders, Sergeant Saif Hussain (currently a Station Inspector following a double promotion), Sergeant Sabah (currently a Staff Sergeant), Sergeant Mohamed Hassan ('Shankaru', currently a Staff Sergeant), Sergeant Mohamed Saeed (currently a Staff Sergeant) and Sergeant Faiz who were in charge of controlling the mutinying police officers, joined the mutiny and were seen taking lead roles in it.

Several other officers were also seen playing lead roles in committing the rebellion against the government. Among these people were Sergeant Shifau ('Valhoa Shifau', currently a Staff Sergeant), Sergeant Ahmed Saamy (Station Inspector with double promotion), Staff Sergeant Akram Abdul Wahhab (the younger brother of the current Commissioner of Police, Mr Riyaz), Staff Sergeant Ali Mustafa (currently a Station Inspector), Staff Sergeant Sofwath Rauf (currently a Station Inspector), Staff Sergeant Nazim ( 'Naabe', well known on TV/ Battery Nazim), Station Inspector Ali Faiz (currently a Sub Inspector), Staff Sergeant Muaaviyath Abdul Majeed, Chief Station Inspector Nasrullah Faiz and Corporal Wajeeh. Of these people Ahmed Saamy was on sick leave that day.

The officers who were leading the mutiny at the Republican Square were seen to be undermining the S.O. Commander Ahmed Abdul Rahman.

As word spread that the military was preparing to arrest the police officers striking against President Nasheed's government, more police officers (besides S.O.) stationed at the main Police Headquarters, Shaheed Hussain Adam Building, started joining the mutinying police officers on the helipad (part of Republican Square).

Also it was noted that detectives under the command of Superintendent Abdullah Nawaz joined the mutiny on his orders. Furthermore, Nawaz instructed his officers to remain on the Helipad and not to go anywhere without his command. Next thing we witnessed was, just like the civilians at the MMA area protesting against President Nasheed's government, the mutinying police officers also started chanting phrases like 'Ganja Boa Isthiufa' shouting and screaming against the President, actions from which the security services are prohibited.

Meanwhile, Chief Superintendents Abdullah Fairoosh and Ahmed Saudy (both currently Assistant Commissioners) and Chief Inspector Abdul Mannan Yoosuf went to Republican Square and met with the mutinying police officers and encouraged them by saying, 'We are here for your rights, we are not going away, stay with us.'

Furthermore Abdullah Fairoosh told members of the S.O. and other officers gathered there, that the reason for the Commissioner of Police's refusal to meet them was due to the Commissioner of Police's lack of leadership qualities and incompetency at his job. After that, Ahmed Saudy, Abdullah Fairoosh and Abdul Mannan Yoosuf were seen engaged in private discussion away from everyone else.

Meanwhile, Fairoosh kept meeting with the S.O. officers gathered, urging the S.O. Platoons Commanders to not leave even if the Commissioner of Police met with them. Also Fairoosh informed them that their mission was to get the Commissioner of Police to face them and give his word that he would never again issue any 'illegal orders'.

Although the Commissioner of Police had decided against meeting the mutinying police officers, the Deputy Commissioner Ismail Atheef tried to speak with them, to no avail. The Deputy Commissioner of Police, Ahmed Muneer, also advised them to leave Republican Square and return to their respective homes. However, the police officers refused to listen to either one of them.

According to intelligence received between 1.30–3.00 am by the MNDF that night, some of the mutinying police officers maintained contact with opposition politicians. Intelligence revealed that PPM Council Member Maaz Saleem attempted to arrange speedboats to bring police officers to Republican Square from neighboring islands. At the same time, anti-government protesters gathered in front of Iskandar Koshi urged the police officers inside to come out and join the mutiny. Furthermore, in an attempt to gather more police officers to Republican Square, Abdullah Fairoosh called police stations located in the neighbouring islands and relayed false information that the Military was beating up the Police.

Under Ahmed Saudy's command, Police speedboats fetched police officers from neighboring islands to Republican Square. In addition, Ahmed Saudy instructed Staff Sergeant of the Marine Police, Abdul Hameed Yoosuf ('Roadha Hameedhu') and Marine Police Operations to send speedboats to AA. Rasdhoo to fetch police officers who were undergoing Police Officer Training in the island at the time. He also instructed them to bring all of their armor along with them.

Furthermore instructions were given to Sergeant Shifau ('Valhoa'), Staff Sergeant Akram Abdul Wahhab, and Staff Sergeant Ali Mustafa to bring all the police officers on duty at local police stations (Villy Police) to Republican Square.

More arms were brought from Iskandhar Koshi to Republican Square in order to strengthen the mutiny in preparation for possible combat with the military. In addition, S.O. officers had broken into Doonidoo armory and transferred weapons to Male' in speedboats, under the command of Staff Sergeant Ali Mustafa. Officers working at Doonidoo Marine Police and Doonidoo Custodial proceeded to Male'. Ali Mustafa continued to update Abdulla Fairoosh with the supposed number of weapons being issued to the Military from the Armory.

The police mutiny at Republican Square that night made the efforts of opposition parties who had been protesting for 22 nights and encouraging mutiny by the security forces against President Nasheed's Government, a success.

As police officers gathered at Republican Square against the orders of their superiors, and refused to heed their advice, the Defense Minister ordered the Military to bring the mutinying police under their custody and to clear Republican Square. Following his command, discussions were held between Joint Staffs and Male' Area Commander to find a resolution to the issue of mutinying police officers. Some Officers suggested bringing the mutinying police officers under military custody immediately, stating that prolonging the situation would pose serious threats to peace and the stability. However, several other officers disagreed with this decision. Among those who disagreed was Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa).

Once the decision was made to bring mutinying police officers under military custody, the Male' Area's Marine Deployment Unit 3 was ordered to block all the roads leading to Republican Square. The purpose of this was to prevent any civilians or police officers from entering Republican Square. Sometime between 12.30-1.00 am, all roads leading to the Republican Square were closed by the MNDF. At the same time, First Lieutenant Salih Moosa, commander of the Quick Response Team was ordered to call all the Quick Response Teams under his command to Republican Square. Meanwhile the task of peaceful negotiations with the mutinying police officers was assigned to Colonel Mohamed Shareef ('Dhonna Shareef').

When First Lieutenant Salih Moosa returned with his team and entered the military's main Headquarters, he was ordered to send away the mutinying policemen from Republican Square and bring them under military custody. Salih Moosa requested that he needed help from the military's Marine Deployment Unit 2 in order to bring the situation under control. The commander of the unit, Captain Amanullah Rasheed was then ordered to return from the Artificial Beach area to MNDF HQ. Nevertheless, by the time Captain Amanulla Rasheed reached the Military Headquarters, an hour after the order was made; it was already 1.30 am.

Upon the arrival of Captain Amanullah Rasheed at Military Headquarters, a meeting was held among the Military Head Officers and Operational Commanders to discuss how to implement the order to arrest the mutinying police officers.

The members present at this meeting were Male' Area's Commander, Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi, Directorate of Operations J3's Commander Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa), Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah Majudhee, Lieutenant Colonel Hussain Ibrahim, Colonel Abdurraheem, Colonel Mohamed Shareef ('Dhonna Shareef'), Captain Hassan Amir, First Lieutenant Mohamed Nasheed and Marine Deploy Units (MDU) Commanders, First Lieutenant Salih Moosa, Captain Amaanullah Rasheed, Captain Hussain Riyaz.

During this meeting, Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi and J3's Commander Mohamed Ziyad questioned the MDU Commanders how to send the mutinying police officers away from Republican Square and to arrest them. The MDU Commanders' response was that they did not believe that going for a combat with the mutinying police was the right decision, and if they were to go and face them, they would find relatives and family members among the mutiny.

When the MDU Commanders hesitated to go for combat with the mutinying police officers and bring them under military supervision, they were sent with a deadline of 2.15 am to prepare an operational plan which was to bring the mutinying policemen under military custody by any means. When the MDU Commanders returned to the meeting at 2.15 am without any kind of operational plan, the Defense Minister ordered the commanders to bring the mutiny under military custody by any means.

After the meeting, Colonel Abdurraheem was assigned the task of speaking with the mutinying police officers and negotiating in order to bring stability to the situation in a peaceful manner before using force to bring the mutinying police officers under Military custody. Accompanied by military officers Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah Majdhy and Colonel Hamid Shafeeq, Colonel Abdurraheem spoke with the mutinying Police Officers to try and convince them to assist in bringing the situation under control in a peaceful manner.

According to information received by military personnel, soon after the meeting on bringing the police mutiny under military custody ended, the police officers stationed at Republican Square began preparing for possible combat.

It is suspected that information regarding the meeting held at the Military Commanders Joint Operation Center was given to the mutinying police officers by one of the military officers. It has come to light that during the meeting held at the Military Commanders Joint Operation Centre, Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa) was seen to be playing with his phone for a long time. By then the number of mutinying police officers protesting at Republican Square had risen from 40 to 150, and additional mutinying police officers had started arriving at that area, thereby deteriorating the already unstable situation.

Senior military officers tried negotiating with the protesting police officers and sending them away from Republican Square. Meanwhile the officers under the MDU Commanders (First Lieutenant Salih Moosa, Captain Amaanullah Rasheed, and Captain Hussain Riyaz) were already aligned and prepared for possible combat inside the Military Headquarters. Several military officers stood in a row near Ameer Ahmed Magu and Shaheed Hussain Adam Building.

As a result of the discussion between the mutinying police officers and the military officers, the military officers received a signal that the mutinying police officers were prepared to head towards 'Iskandhar Koshi'. When several mutinying police officers prepared to leave Republican Square, the military officers ordered them to leave all their weapons behind. At this time, the officers leading the mutiny instructed the mutinying police officers to ignore the military's command to lay down their weapons and they stationed themselves at Republican Square yet again.

The situation at hand had deteriorated, and yet the military officers were not done with the arrangements and preparations necessary to bring the mutinying police officers under military custody. The military officers had come to know they did not have sufficient non-lethal weapons to bring the police into custody. When Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah Majdhy was questioned about why they did not retrieve enough weapons, he told them that the armory would not release any more non-lethal weapons. However, when the Ordnance Service's Commander Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Naseem was questioned regarding this matter, he said that he had been at the armory for the past hour and that no one came to collect any additional weapons.

After further investigations into this case, it came to light that Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah Majdhy assigned MDU's Commander Captain Amaanullah Rasheed, who claimed to have forgotten to pick up more weapons from the armory. Therefore, more MDUs were sent to collect additional non-lethal weapons from the armory. It took the MDUs another 45 minutes to prepare themselves with the additional weapons. Even then, several senior military officers continued negotiating with the mutinying police officers.

As these events unfolded, local broadcasting channels, DhiTV and VTV, were conveying supportive messages from anti-government leaders and religious scholars to the mutinying police officers. Furthermore it came to light that during DhiTV's special coverage at midnight, Sheikh Imran Abdullah conveyed the following message to the public:
'The police officers gathered at Republican Square are there to protect the constitution, to protect the Maldivian people and the Islamic religion of the nation. Join the quest of these people who truly love this country, especially to support the courageous steps being taken by these police officers. They are hungry and tired. Any person capable of providing them with helping of food and water should not step back. Contact your friends in the military, call someone you know in the police force and lend them a supportive hand. Find our members from the movement of 23 December who were present at the scene and help them. This country is in need of your generosity. It is unable to move any further without your help. So do not hesitate in the slightest, come forward and help us. I would also like to say that the police officers request your help and support. Their biggest request and highest priority is for all of the people of this country to be with them. So come join us and protect us. Start helping us in protecting our country starting tomorrow morning.'

That night at around 2.30 am, VTV broadcast a message from the Vice President Dr. Mohamed Waheed, encouraging the unconstitutional activities that were taking place at Republican Square. In this message Dr. Waheed said:
'During this dangerous situation faced by the nation, it is my duty to say a few words. I support the peaceful efforts of a large number of Maldivians trying to protect the Maldivian constitution and the religion. At this time, I call upon all the institutions, especially law enforcement agencies, the Military to uphold the constitution and to refrain from unconstitutional and illegal instructions.'

This message from the Vice President was similar, in its intentions, to the message given to the Security Forces by opposition politicians following their meeting with the Vice President at his residence in the early hours of January 30, where they called on the security forces to refrain from taking any orders from Mohamed Nasheed. Their message was: 'We call upon the Maldives Police and Maldives Military to immediately pledge their allegiance to Vice President Dr. Mohamed Waheed Hassan Manik and to refrain from following any orders from Mohamed Nasheed.'

According to intelligence received by the military, it was perceived that anti-government parties were maintaining contact with the mutinying police officers stationed at Republican Square and some Military personnel. At the same time, Umar Naseer set up a 'Command Center' in Male' and gave out instructions to the police and military officers who were under his command. Umar Naseer himself has admitted to this during an interview on Australian television, SBS's Dateline Program, on 28 February 2012.

The military claimed that the reason for failing to bring the mutinying police officers under their command through use of force was that the numbers of military officers were much lower than those of mutinying police officers.

However, it must be noted that since the commencement of operation 'Liberty Shield' there were approximately 500 military personnel stationed near the capital, Male'. The claims of the military personnel gave the mutinying police officers renewed courage for their rebellion against President Nasheed's government. The commanders relayed that they would require more military personnel, and the Male' area commander assigned Colonel Mohamed Shahid (Director of Administration and Personal Services) to bring 200 additional military officers to Male'.

Although the then Defense Minister instructed them to bring the mutinying police officers under military custody, some of the military's general officers were not supportive of this order. Those who disagreed argued that once the sun rises and the mutinying policemen have to bask in the hot sun, they would start to leave Republican Square. Nonetheless, it was evident that once the sun rose, pro and anti-government civilians would start stationing themselves at Republican Square as well.

President Nasheed Arrives at the Military (MNDF)
When the mutinying police officers failed to obey the orders of the military troops by refusing to hand over their weapons and leave Republican Square, President Nasheed left the official residence of the President, Muleeage, and arrived at Military Headquarters at around 4.15 am the following morning to inquire why the situation had not yet been brought under control. President Nasheed was greeted by the Defense Minister, Home Minister and other high ranking military officers inside the Military Headquarters. Shortly after the President's arrival at the Military Headquarters, troops were sent out to arrest the mutinying police.

They left the MNDF Headquarters and assembled in front of the Police Headquarters. Colonel Hamid Shafeeg ordered the mutinying police officers to turn themselves in, to hand in their weapons and for the rest of the police officers present at Republican Square to vacate Republican Square, but to no avail. Within minutes the mutinying police officers started to get into their riot gear. The mutinying police officers were prepared to confront the military in an armed conflict and to use force to stand against the government, if necessary.

While the military officers were assembled near the national flag at Republican Square, civilians were also seen among the mutinying police officers. While bottles of water were being continuously thrown by the police officers at the military officers assembled, it must be noted that the military officers never confronted the mutinying police in any manner. The military continually requested for the police officers to abandon their gear and leave Republican Square to no avail. The military continued in this manner until the call of Fajr Prayers.

With the call of Fajr Prayers, protesters in favor of the mutinying police barged in across the areas that had been cordoned off and joined forces with them, handing out bottles of water. Shortly afterwards, the military began getting attacked with small bottles of water and loud, angry, verbal abuse. At this time, the military did not retaliate in any way and slowly retreated back into the Military Headquarters.

After the end of Fajr Prayers, more civilians were seen to be joining in with the mutinying police officers, from the east of the Islamic Center. The military had now abandoned their posts cordoning off Republican Square, and it is still unclear as to why or under whose orders this was done.

Meanwhile, the military officers who had earlier retreated back into the Military Headquarters were now setting up to move out again. Their Commander in Chief President Nasheed addressed them before they marched out, asking the officers to carry out orders given by their superiors, and asked them to save the country. After President's address, Colonel Mohamed Ziyad spoke to the Officers. When asked if there was anyone who wasn't willing to go on this mission, two commanders, Captain Amanullah Rasheed, First Lieutenant Salih Moosa, and Officer, First Lieutenant Adam Moosa voiced out their hesitation to go on the mission. Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi concluded that the three officers wouldn't partake in this mission and in their stead, arranged for two commanders, Lieutenant Colonel Nasrullah Majeed, First Lieutenant Ali Ihsaan, and Colonel Hamid Shafeeg to join this troop.

Military personnel assembled in front of the Police Headquarters yet again. The mutinying police officers challenged the military personnel, saying 'come face us' and signaling at them with hand gestures. The military personnel once again did not appear to do anything to arrest the mutinying police and at approximately 6.30 am they retreated back into the Military Headquarters.

Amidst these events, close by at Republican Square, word was spreading quickly within MNDF intelligence that Paradise Island resort would soon send in food and drink for all the protesters at Republican Square. Once the military officers came back inside, they were sent to have breakfast. At that very moment, opposition protesters gathered near MMA, while pro-government supporters gathered near the junction of Chandhanee Magu and Orchid Magu directly next to the Republican Square.

President Nasheed Meets with Mutinying Police Officers
Although the Commissioner of Police had previously decided not to meet personally with the mutinying police officers, he decided to meet them at the very early hours of February 7 upon their request, and to hold discussions with the senior officials at the Police Headquarters. The mutinying police officers requested that discussions be held in the presence of two witnesses, and Superintendent Ahmed Abdul Rahman and Sub-inspector Abdullah Naseer were nominated.

However, while the details of this meeting were being discussed, President Nasheed stepped out to the Republic Square to talk directly with the mutinying police officers. He was accompanied by former Defence Minister Thalhath Ibrahim, one of his bodyguards Sergeant Major Moosa Ibrahim (P.S.O.), Sergeant First Class Mohamed Nafiz (B.G.I.C.), President Nasheed's bodyguard team, Advance Security Team on duty on this fateful day, and SPG Security Coordinator Major Ahmed Faisal, Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa), Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi, Chief of Defence Force Major General Moosa Ali Jaleel, and a few military police members along with some military personnel of different ranks.

When the President first stepped out to greet the police, a loud, rather vulgar call of 'Ganja Boa' (a derogatory term used against President Nasheed) was heard. The President ignored this and continued. President Nasheed said that what they [the police] were doing at that time was low and demeaning. While addressing them, President Nasheed said that what they had done was appalling but stressed that he understood, that even as police officers, they could somehow get mixed up in the riots. He continued saying that at this point it would be best that they turn themselves over to the military immediately. He also guaranteed the safety and security of the mutinying police officers, to them. The mutinying police officers immediately began yelling and shouting profanity, and refused to follow orders.

President Nasheed then pointed to Staff Sergeant Jadullah Ibrahim, and asked him to stand beside him. Then he pointed to the next police officer, and asked him to come forward as well. The individual stepped out, but upon the crowd of mutinying police officers commencing to chant 'No! No!', he refused to join and turned his back on the President. More calls of 'ganja boa' and 'isthiufa' (step down) were heard. At that point, the President stepped back and stood on the east just outside the Republican Square. After a moment, he went back inside the Military Headquarters.

Brutality of Mutinying Police towards Civilians
Early in the morning about 150 pro-government protesters were gathered near the junction of Chandhanee Magu and Orchid Magu. Among them were members of Parliament and Cabinet ministers. Simultaneously, anti-government protesters were gathering near at the MMA area of Chandhanee Magu. Inside Republican Square, mutinying police officers and civilians were acting together protesting against the government. At this time, all access to Republican Square had been cordoned off by the military.

However, a few hours after sunrise, the military officers abandoned the cordoned off zones, and were seen to be heading back inside the Military Headquarters. It is unclear how the anti-government protesters were able to get inside Republican Square while it was cordoned off.

With the military personnel abandoning the cordoned off areas, mutinying police officers in the Republican Square began chanting their 'Fuluhun ge Azum' (Police Oath) loudly. At that point the pro-government supporters started making their way towards Republican Square. Just as the pro-government supporters reached the northern gate of the Islamic Center, (adjacent to Republican Square) the mutinying police officers had finished reciting their oath and without any warning they (together with opposition civilians) charged at the pro-government supporters. They began beating the unarmed pro-government supporters with wooden planks and tube lights and yelled profanity at them.

The violence towards the pro-government people continued, and MP Mariya Ahmed Didi and MP Eva Abdulla's husband Ahmed Shahid (Saabe) were violently attacked and beaten. Mariya suffered a bloodshot eye from being punched severely on her eyes. The mutinying police officers spotted Saabe standing amongst the activists' crowd and attacked him, forcefully removing his shirt, and beating him. While Saabe was under the protective custody of two security officers, an officer in plain clothes, Corporal Mohamed Niyaz of the S.O. jumped up and kicked Saabe in his stomach and hit him on the back of his head with his hand. Corporal Niyaz has now been promoted to a Sergeant. Meanwhile as the chaos unfolded, President Nasheed stood helpless, observing this scene from the top floor of the Military Headquarters.

Pro -Nasheed government supporters in Male. Maldives, walking into the Republican Square. None of them have any weaponry 7 February 2012
Pro-government supporters walking into the Republican Square. As can be seen from the photo, none of them have any weaponry on them.

Corporal Mohamed Niyaz kicking Saabe, right below his ribs.
Corporal Mohamed Niyaz kicking Saabe, right below his ribs.

Maldives coup February 2012, Corporal Mohamed Niyaz hitting Saabe, on the back of his head.
Corporal Mohamed Niyaz hitting Saabe on the back of his head.

Corporal Mohamed Niyaz , a Maldives Police S.O. Officer
Corporal Mohamed Niyaz, a police S.O. officer.

Confrontation between the Mutinying Police and the MNDF
President Nasheed upon seeing the excessive brutality of the mutinying police officers rushed downstairs from the top floor of the Military Headquarters near the main gate. He raised his voice and firmly commanded those who had sworn to 'protect and serve' the nation to do so. Some military officers grabbed their riot guns and shields, and gas masks, while others just grabbed a baton, and walked out in an ad hoc manner in no file or formation. The military personnel walked out of the Military Headquarters and faced the mutinying police officers. The police officers, by then, had tear gas canisters and riot guns on them.

The military officers prevented the mutinying police officers and the opposition civilians from entering any further into the Republic Square with the use of riot guns and tear gas, and pushed them all the way to Bodu Thakurufaanu Magu, but the military officers stopped there.

Video evidence shows Private Faruhadh of the Military Police who works in the Male' area (Hulhule Post) calling out to the civilians to not let the military scare them and showed him encouraging civilians and the unlawful police officers to attack the military. This video also shows Private Faruhadh using a metal rod-like instrument to attack the military troops.

The same video also shows Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain (also of Male' area, Hulhule Post) in his riot gear switching sides to join the unlawful policemen and the protesters to attack the Military Police with his baton. The video shows Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain running with his raised baton to attack the Military Police. At this time, eight more military officers abandoned their own cause to join the mutinying police officers, asking more 'true soldiers' to join them. Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain and Private Faruhadh were two of the soldiers who joined the mutinying police.

Maldivian Military Policemen staying true to their country and oath have pushed back the protesters and the mutinying Police officers from Republican Square, February 2012
Military policemen staying true to their country and oath have pushed back the protesters and the mutinying police officers from Republican Square.

Private Faruhadh sides with the mutinying police officers and the opposition protesters.
Private Faruhadh sides with the mutinying police officers and the opposition protesters.

Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain ready to attack the Maldives Military Police with his baton held and raised.
Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain ready to attack the Military Police with his baton held and raised.

Maldives military officer Private Faruhadh , ready to attack fellow Military Troops with long metal instrument.
Military officer Private Faruhadh ready to attack fellow military troops with long metal instrument.

Maldives Sergeant First class Amir Hussain beckoning to opposition protesters and onlookers to join in on the rebellion .
Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain beckoning to opposition protesters and onlookers to join in on the rebellion.

Maldives Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain giving a pep talk to the civilians who assisted in bringing the coup
Sergeant First Class Amir Hussain giving a pep talk to the civilians who assisted in bringing the coup.

Maldives Military officer 'Youth' encouraging a civilian to engage in the rebellion.
Military officer 'Youth' encouraging a civilian to engage in the rebellion.

Though it was a few military personnel who sided with the mutinying police officers, this proved to be of great encouragement to the police officers. As fights broke out between the two parties, more and more military personnel seemed to join the mutinying police officers. Amidst this chaos, the mutinying police officers threw tables, chairs, computers and other such projectiles from the top floors of the Police Headquarters aimed at the military officers.

As the stand-off between police and military continued, more military officers could be seen joining the mutinous police in their rebellion. Unable to hold their line and strength anymore, the military retreated into their headquarters and closed the main gate. While they were retreating, mutinous security officers and civilians chased the military officers while carrying and throwing sticks and rocks at them.

Mutinying police officers joined by civilians throw police shields at the military personnel  in Maldives
Mutinying police officers joined by civilians throw police shields at the military personnel.

Chairs and other objects thrown from the top floor of Shaheed Hussain Adam Building to attack the military officers.
Chairs and other objects thrown from the top floor of Shaheed Hussain Adam Building to attack the military officers.

Many military officers inside the Military Headquarters then voiced their political inclination and opted to join the security officers outside who were still attacking the Military Headquarters. When Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi informed the President of the developing situation inside the Military Headquarters. By this time, the mutinying police officers along with civilian protesters were calling out for President Nasheed to step down as the President of the Republic.

During this time, the following was caught on video camera: footage of a military van pulling up in front of the Military Headquarters and mutinying police officers and attempting to set it on fire. A military officer can be seen from inside the locked gates of the headquarters telling the mutinying police officers not to go through with it. A young civilian smashing the surveillance cameras with a wooden plank was also caught on video. These surveillance cameras were attached on the top west side of Military Headquarters.

Police Sub-Inspector Azeem Waheed was also caught on camera, providing the civilians with riot shields intended for police use, and encouraging the civilians to fight. At that point, a group of military personnel broke out of the headquarters and joined forces with the mutinying officers. Police Staff Sergeant Ali Musthafa, Police Staff Sergeant Naazim (Naabe) and Sergeant Shifau (Valho) are seen on video footage as being most active amongst those encouraging civilians and police and military to join the rebels.

Maldivan civilians using police riot shields at the scene of dispute – Republican Square
Civilians using police riot shields at the scene of dispute – Republican Square.

A Maldivian civilian using police riot shield and long wooden instrument at the scene – Republican Square.
A civilian using police riot shield and long wooden instrument at the scene – Republican Square.

The Appointment of a Commissioner of Police and Take-over of Executive Powers
Events that were out of the ordinary took place inside Police Headquarters between 10.00am and 11.30am, prior to the resignation of the President on February 7, 2012. When the Commissioner of Police Ahmed Faseeh was in the Commissioner's Bureau on the fourth floor of the Police Headquarters, Superintendent Abdulla Fairoosh and Chief Inspector Abdul Mannaan Yusuf entered the Bureau. Abdulla Fairoosh placed a chair in front of the Commissioner of Police, sat down and informed him that a team of negotiators were preparing to enter the Military Headquarters with the demand that the President resigned within one hour. Abdulla Fairoosh also questioned the Commissioner of Police what decision he would make regarding his own resignation. Assistant Commissioner Mohamed Sodiq, Chief Superintendent Mohamed Hameed, Sub Inspector Hassan Haneef and Sergeant Rajnee Shuaib were present in the room.

When the Commissioner of Police and the other officers in the room proceeded to the conference room on the 5th floor, under the orders of Abdulla Fairoosh, commissioned police officers were in the room in plain clothes and in uniform, seemingly ready for a meeting. Most officers were so emotional that they were unable to look Commissioner of Police Faseeh in the eyes. The Commissioner of Police addressed all the officers present saying that the events which occurred [today] were regrettable and saddening, and that he wished everyone well. He also announced that he did not intend to continue as the Commissioner of Police and requested everyone to fully cooperate with whoever his successor may be. Commissioner of Police Faseeh then shook hands with everyone and left.

Discussions on who should be appointed as the acting Commissioner of Police followed immediately, and as someone proposed Abdulla Fairoosh, everyone in the room agreed to appoint Abdulla Fairoosh by a show of hands vote. Due to the manner in which this process unfolded, and in light of the conversation that took place around it, sources reveal that it is most probable that this course of action was pre-planned.

Immediately after Abdulla Fairoosh's appointment as the Commissioner of Police, the head of Intelligence Department Chief Superintendent Mohamed Hameed was removed from his position and the department was handed over to Chief Inspector Abdul Mannaan Yusuf. Ahmed Saudee was then appointed as a deputy to aide Abdulla Fairoosh and a committee of five members was selected after voting on seven to eight names that were initially proposed.

This committee was comprised of Superintendent Ahmed Mohamed (Two-four), Superintendent Abdulla Ahmed, Chief Superintendent Hassan Habeeb and two other officers. This whole process shows that the authority and powers of the institution's executive was suspended and transferred to an interim committee.

Meanwhile the President, Home Minister and the Deputy Commissioner Ismail Atheef had not even resigned yet. The removal of the head of Intelligence Department also sheds light on the conspiracy. It must also be noted that the Intelligence Department was assigned to Chief Inspector Abdul Mannaan Yusuf who was in Maldives on holiday while undertaking a Masters program in the U.K..

In light of the above mentioned points, it must be noted that the newly appointed heads of MPS were in fact the 10 officers who met Commissioner of Police Faseeh on 17 January 2012. According to information obtained from sources, Abdulla Riyaz, Mohamed Fayaz, Mohamed Nazim and other key figures held important meetings between January 17, 2012 and February 6, 2012 at various cafes and at Abdulla Riyaz's residence, G. Dimlight. Adam Ibrahim, former head of the Human Resource Department of the Maldives Police Service, was reportedly seen at one of the said meetings held in a cafe.

Military Loses Control and Command
As the Military had failed to bring the mutinying police officers into their custody, and some military officers had even joined the mutinying police officers while some others had expressed their desire to do so, Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi told the President that the situation now has come to a point where he has exhausted all options but to use live bullets in a bid to control the mutiny.

The President never considered this option. The President made it very clear that no arms should be used and no shots should be fired, and asked to ensure that the Armory was thoroughly secured. The President also ordered Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi to lock up all weapons. Furthermore the President also ordered Brigadier Ibrahim Mohamed Didi that under no circumstances was he to use live bullets against anyone. Then Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi told the President that he was not able to implement the President's orders and failed his assigned mission, and that he therefore wished to resign his post. Other General Officers and military officers were with the President and Brigadier General Ibrahim Mohamed Didi at the time.

Meanwhile some military officers were making their own efforts to take up arms and small groups of mutinous military officers were formed who openly expressed anti-government sentiments. During this time some military personnel neglected their national duties and responsibilities and engaged in celebration with the traditional drumming procession, bodu beru.

While Republican Square and the area surrounding the Military Headquarters fell into chaos, in the midst of this impending danger, what we saw was around 40 military officers leaving from the second military barracks, 'Kalhuthuhkalaa Koshi' and marching towards Republican Square in their uniforms shouting 'Allah Akbar' and joining the mutinous forces.

Maldives military personnel marching towards the Republican Square from Kalhuthuhkalaa Koshi . (Corporal Shafeeq , Sergeant First Class Shameem Danka , Corporal Mohamed Rasheed , and Sergeant Amjad. )
Military personnel marching towards the Republican Square from Kalhuthuhkalaa Koshi.
A = Corporal Shafeeq, B = Sergeant First Class Shameem Danka, C = Corporal Mohamed Rasheed, and D = Sergeant Amjad.

Some military officers joining the mutinous forces at the Republic Square.
A = Lance Corporal Najeed, B = Lance Corporal Simah Shareef, C = Lance Corporal Rasheed, D = Lance Corporal Firash, E = Corporal Ibrahim.

Military officers who joined the mutinous forces being welcomed in Republic Square.
A = Corporal Ahmed Shakir.

Military officers who joined the mutinous forces being welcomed in Republic Square.

Some military officers who disobeyed orders and left Kalhuthuhkalaa Koshi to join mutinous forces in Republican Square.
A = Sergeant Migdhad, B = Ahmed Aslam.

The President of Maldives being ordered to Resign and Mohamed Nazim taking up Command over Security Forces
The situation escalated as time passed. Colonel (retired) Mohamed Nazim and Ministry of Transport and Communication's Deputy Minister Mohamed Fayaz (F.A.) and Abdulla Riyaz, a former Assistant Commissioner of Police who was fired over the issue of a bounced cheque, were seen near the main gate of the Military Headquarters. They went up to the gate of the Military Headquarters and requested to meet with senior officers of the Military. This request was delivered to Brigadier Ibrahim Mohamed Didi and with the permission of the Defense Minister they entered the Military Headquarters.

As Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz entered the Headquarters, they were warmly welcomed by about 60 military personnel. Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz were escorted to the Defense Minister's Meeting Room by Brigadier General Ahmed Shiyam. In that room, Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz met with the Defense Minister, Chief of Defense Force Major General Moosa Ali Jaleel, Brigadier General Ahmed Shiyam, Brigadier General Ahmed Nilam and Colonel Mohamed Ziyad.

During the meeting held between Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz with senior military officers, Mohamed Nazim stated that their demand is for the immediate resignation of the President. He continued to say that if the President refused to resign, they would be unable to control the crowd gathered outside the Military Headquarters.

The Defense Minister replied to Mohamed Nazim's demands saying that his demands were impossible and that the ousting of a government from the streets is unacceptable. The Defense Minister also stated that the President wished to consult the Speaker of the Parliament and Chief Justice on how to proceed with the ongoing issues and that the President needed more time, specifically stating that the President needed until around 3.30pm, to be able to meet the demands of Mohamed Nazim.

At this point the meeting ended and Mohamed Nazim with Abdulla Riyaz were escorted out of the Military Headquarters. On the way out Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz were congratulated by the military personnel who were near the flag post inside the Military Headquarters and Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz addressed them, stating that there would be no other option but for the President to resign and advised the military to be ready to come out when asked.

1 = Mohamed Nazim exiting Military Headquarters, 2 = Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf.

When Abdulla Riyaz and Mohamed Nazim were meeting with the senior officers inside the Military Headquarters, a large number of people including police and military personnel were gathered near the gate of the Military Headquarters, expressing anti-government sentiments through a megaphone. Police Staff Sergeant Nazim (Naabe) also thanked the military officials, Colonel Abdul Rauf and Colonel Mohamed Nasheed who had so far been negotiating with the mutinous forces, while speaking on the megaphone. A former member of the military, Latheef (Tissue-kaa) also announced that Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz were presenting the demands and negotiating on behalf of the mutinous forces.

A = Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf, B = Person now in charge of Muleeaage, Fayaz, C = Ahmed Hansen (went into Muleeaage and the President's Office with Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz), D = First Lieutenant Azim (Bass Azim), E = First Sergeant Ibrahim Abdulla, F = Mohamed Fayaz (FA), G = Ali Rifau (went into Muleeaage and the President's Office with Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz), H = Sergeant First Class Shinan.

When Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz came out of the Military Headquarters mutinous security forces with anti-government civilian protesters were gathered near the gate of the Headquarters to welcome them. As Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz came out of the Headquarters, Staff Sergeant Nazim (Naabe) handed the speaker system in his hand to Mohamed Nazim to address the crowd. Speaking to the mutinous forces, Mohamed Nazim said:
'Yes. I have just met with the Defense Minister and all the senior ranking members of the Military and presented our demands. The demand is for the President to resign under no condition and to hand over all his powers to the Vice President. Our second demand is for Commissioner of Police Ahmed Faseeh to resign with his two deputies. I told them that these demands are non-negotiable. No dialogue can continue on these matters. I am assuring all beloved citizens, police and military officers with us that by the will of God, things will end up the way we want it to before 1.30 pm today. When I entered the Military Headquarters I saw a very joyful scene. All the people inside the Military Headquarters held me up and very clearly showed me that I have their full support. By the will of Allah, everything will end up the way we want it to today.'

While Mohamed Nazim was giving the above speech, Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf who was near the gate of the Military headquarters walked up to Mohamed Nazim and stood behind him.

Mohamed Nazim announcing that the President must resign without any conditions.
1 = Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Rauf, 2 = Abdulla Riyaz, 3 = Ahmed Hansen, 4 = Abdul Latheef (Tissuekaa), 5 = Naabe, 6 = Mohamed Nazim.

Meanwhile the general officers and the Defense Minister went to convey the demands revealed in the meeting between them and Mohamed Nazim and Abdulla Riyaz to the President. Despite the chaotic and desperate situation, the generals did not present the President with a proposal to reconcile the crisis.

They told the President that the only solution they found was to use 'lethal weapons'. This suggestion was not entertained by the President on any level and he refused once again to use force of arms.

As the situation in the Military Headquarters reached this level, the President asked the senior officers how many personnel would be willing follow his orders. He was given the answer that there would be very few. Brigadier General Ahmed Shiyam further elaborated that it would be just 4 to 5 individuals at most. As the President was unsure of the level of command and control of the generals within the Military Headquarters, the President decided to personally meet the military officers in an attempt to gain insight into their perspective.

Subsequently, Brigadier Ahmed Shiyam ordered all military officers present inside the Headquarters to gather at a certain area inside Military Headquaters.

Within a few moments around 80 military officers gathered at the specified area, where the President personally spoke to them and asked them how they would like him to proceed. When the President did not receive a response, he then asked how many of them thought he should resign. In response to this question more than 80% of the military personnel present, raised their hand in consensus that they wanted the President to resign. It is also notable that Staff Sergeant Sagib informed the President then that he should finalize all matters regarding his resignation within three hours.

After hearing the response from the military personnel, the President pleaded for his safety and for the safety of his family.

Taking over of MNBC1
On the morning of February 7, between 7.45 and 8.30 Ali Waheed (Dr. Mohamed Waheed Hassan Manik's younger brother) arrived at the state media, MNBC1 TV station and informed Adam Shareef, the Managing Director of MNBC1 that he had arrived to take possession of the station and that Adam Shareef should relinquish all control over to him. When Ali Waheed was questioned about who ordered him to do it, he replied, 'The Commander in Chief right now is my brother Dr. Waheed. He told me to do so (take over MNBC).' When Adam informed Ali Waheed that he would not give up control of the station, Ali Waheed made a phone-call and was engaged in conversation for some time before he left.

When Ali Waheed left, Adam advised all his staff to take necessary precautions to protect the station from any external attacks as well as for their own personal safety. In addition he told the staff that they could go home if they wished.

A short while after the conversation between Ali Waheed and Adam Shareef, a police truck with 6 S.O. Officers and some civilian opposition members crashed their vehicle into MNBC1's gates in an attempt to break in through the locked gates. Some people taking refuge at MNBC1 and the MDP Headquarters threw stones at the vehicle and drove them away. Following this incident, some MNBC1 staff were in state of shock and fear after finding out that three truck loads of security officers along with a dozen opposition supporters were coming to take over the state broadcaster.

While they waited locked inside the main building, the security forces and few opposition members forcefully entered the station premises. They fired a baton round of a riot gun to break the lock on the gate and entered. Video footage of the takeover is publicly available. Opposition supporters were wielding makeshift weapons such as wooden planks and iron rods.

They entered the main administration building by smashing the glass windows, including the scanner at the reception while shouting profanities, intimidating and terrorizing the staff. The security officers went from room to room of the building and escorted Adam Shareef from the 'Light Room' to the 'Control Room'. One police officer screaming profanities wielded a wooden plank at Shareef with the intent of hitting him.

Meanwhile Ali Waheed (Dr. Waheed's younger brother), MP for Vilifushi constituency Riyaz Rasheed, MP for Gemanafushi constituency Ilham Ahmed and President of religions right wing Adhaalath Party Sheikh Imran Abdulla were all present in the 'Control Room'. In addition, they ordered the Chief Financial Officer of MNBC1 Athira Ali, who at the time had taken charge of the 'Control Room' to leave immediately. When Athira refused to leave, Ilham Ahmed and Riyaz Rasheed dragged her out by both hands.

Approximately 10 minutes later, the station began to telecast live feed of VTV and the station started broadcasting with the TVM logo (the name used for the channel during former President Gayoom's regime). Meanwhile, Athira and Adam were locked-up in the 'Engineering Room' where they were being held. The mutinying officers also removed Muhsin, who was at the newsroom at the time, from the premises and escorted him home in a police vehicle.

Some officers who played a significant role in taking over MNBC1 includes Police Sub Inspector Adam Iyaz, S.O. Sergeant Mohamed Hasan (Shankar) and Military Police Sergeant Ahmed Shaafee.

After the take over of MNBC1, security officers and a dozen opposition members attacked the MDP Headquarters under the orders of Police Sergeant Ahmed Shaafee, causing considerable damage and harm.

Police, military and civilians force open the gates of MNBC1 and enter the premises.

Police, military and civilians smash the glass of MNBC1 headquarters and enter the building.

A police officer taking command of the control room of MNBC1 after its takeover.

Police and military active inside the building after forceful takeover of MNBC1.

A female employee of MNBC1 being pulled by military officers by both hands. To the right of the woman is Lance Corporal Zahir and to her left Corporal Shiyaz.

Police and military officers expressing their jubilation over the successful forced takeover of MNBC1.

Active Participation of Political Leaders at the Republican Square
After finding out that the area surrounding Military Headquarters was in chaos and no longer maintained peace and stability, and after hearing the call for the President's resignation from inside the Military Headquarters, senior opposition political leaders hastily arrived at the scene. They were seen embracing each other, speaking to the crowd and cheering the mob on. Among them were the Leader of Jumhooree Party (JP) Gasim Ibrahim, Leader of Dhivehi Qaumee Party (DQP) Dr. Hassan Saeed, Leader of the Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (DRP) Thasmeen Ali and Dr Jameel Ahmed who is a Deputy Leader of the DQP.

Highranking police officers had rushed to greet the politicians who had arrived at the Republican Square. Senior police officers at the scene included Superintendent Ali Shujau, Chief Superintendent Ahmed Saudhy, Chief Superintendent Hassan Habeeb and Superintendent Hassan Aseeth.

1 = Ahmed Thasmeen Ali, 2 = Ali Saleem, 3 = Riyaz Rasheed, 4 = Qasim Ibrahim at Republican Square.

1 = Gasim Ibrahim, 2 = Dr. Hassan Saeed, 3 = Dr. Mohamed Jameel Ahmed at Republican Square.

The senior police officers climbed onto the back of a pickup truck that one of the political parties had brought to the scene and addressed the protesters gathered at the square.

Assistant Commissioner Ali Rasheed, Chief Superintendent Ahmed Saudhy, Abdullah Fairoosh, Hassan Habeeb, Superintendent Hassan Aseeth, Abdullah Navaz, Ahmed Mohamed (Dhon Ahmed), Chief Inspector Hussein Rasheed, Ahmed Naafiz, Mohamed Haleem (Naibugey Haleem), Inspector Ahmed Shameem (S.O. Shameem), Inspector Mohamed Nadheem (Nadheembe), and Subinspector Ahmed Nasih were among those who spoke to the crowd. Political figures atop the pickup truck included PPM Council Members Villimaafannu MP Ahmed Nihan Hussein Manik, Ibrahim Waheed and Ahmed 'Maaz' Saleem. It is worth noting that the political leaders and senior police officers on board the pickup truck seemed like comrades in arms especially Abdullah Fairoosh, Ahmed Saudhy, Hussein Rasheed and Hassan Aseeth.

Later Abdullah Fairoosh was seen addressing the rioters, using the sound system that was transported to the scene by political activists. It is noteworthy that Abdullah Fairoosh was in full uniform when he addressed the crowd although earlier in the day he was in plain clothes. In his speech Abdullah Fairoosh said that the operation the police had carried with assistance of civilians following the events of the February 6, 2012 was a great success and assured them he was certain that the people would reap the benefits very soon.

He also stated that due to certain events the Commissioner of Police had resigned from his post and both his deputies were unavailable to take over. He went on to say that after an emergency meeting of the commissioned officers it was decided that he would be stepping in as the Acting Commissioner of Police. He thanked the protesters for their support and praised the police officers for their efforts. Abdullah Fairoosh told the crowd that today is a most joyous day, since the President had agreed to resign.

A significant detail is that while Abdullah Fairoosh was addressing the crowd, senior police officers including the Deputy-Commissioner Ismail Atheef were being physically beaten, forced onto a speedboat and taken to another island by rogue police officers.

A = Abdullah Fairoosh, B = Abdullah Mohamed (Dhon Mohamed), C = Ahmed Saudhy, D = Hussein Rasheed (Sharon/Thala Hussein), E = Shameem (SO Shameem) with the members of the opposing political parties atop the pickup.

Another noteable event caught on video was when the MP for South Kulhudhufushi constituency Mohamed Nasheed arrived at the scene. He carried out an excessive display in embracing those present at the Republican Square and openly crying on their shoulders. Nasheed also climbed atop the pickup truck and addressed the crowd. In his speech he praised the police and said that the people should never forget the exemplary courage that police officers had shown. He said the people should respect and honour their service. He went on to say that the message that the police officers had conveyed would serve as a reminder to the leaders to come. According to him, that message was to 'stay within the lines, or we will have to force you back in line'.

Mohamed Nasheed shedding tears of joy.

Mohamed Nasheed addressing the crowd at Republican Square and praising their efforts.

Later the senior political figures present at the scene were invited into the Police Headquarters. Gasim Ibrahim, Ahmed Thasmeen Ali, Dr. Hassan Saeed, Dr. Mohamed Jameel Ahmed, Asadhullah Shafy and Ibrahim Didi from the Adhaalath Party were among those who came together in discussion and celebration inside the Police Headquarters. Former Assistant Commissioner of Police Abdullah Riyaz was also seen inside the Headquarters. Assistant Commissioner Hussein Waheed was the highest ranking officer present at the gathering inside. SubInspector Azim Waheed and Staff-Sergeant Mohamed Luthfee were also present.

Attack on Police Headquarters and Senior Officers
Mutinying police officers, who broke joined protests on February 6 & 7 claiming to uphold the constitution, began to attack senior officers who refused to join their movement. Sergeant Shifau (Valhoa) and Sergeant Mohamed Hassan (Shankar) were among the unlawful officers who protested in front of Police Headquarters, screaming to bring 'the dogs' out to the waiting mob. These acts were carried by civilians, police officers in plain clothes and police officers in normal police uniform.

Sources confirm that this operation was supervised by senior officers in the Special Operations Department with instruction from Superintendent Abdullah Navaz and Sub-inspector Azeem Waheed. This uprising was led by Sergeant Shifau (Valho), Station-inspector Ali Musthafa (Gdh. Fiyoari), Corporal Hussein Shaahil and Corporal Ahmed Vikram (Vicky).

These police officers stormed inside Police Headquarters demanding that Commissioner of Police Ahmed Faseeh and Deputy Police Commissioners as well as other senior officers be brought out and threatening to kill them. These rogue police officers vandalized the halls and other public property while proceeding to drag out some of targeted officers out where they beat them ruthlessly.

The group made their way upstairs and found the Deputy Minister of Home Affairs Mohamed Mahir Easa and a few senior officers inside the officers' Mess Room. The angry mob ransacked the officers' Mess Room smashing the TV screen, breaking the windows, plates and everything in their path. Corporal Ahmed Vikram (Vicky) and Corporal Hussein Shaahil were heard screaming, 'Get out you dogs or we will kill you.' Ahmed Vikram attacked Superintendent Ibrahim Adnan Anees with a wooden chair hitting him on his back while Hussein Shaahil kicked Anees in the groin.

At the same time some of the men had attacked the Deputy Minister. Then they dragged the Deputy Minister, high-ranking police officer Ibrahim Manik (Lady), Chief-Superintendent Mohamed Jinah, Ibrahim Adnan Anees, Deputy Commissioner Ismail Atheef and Chief-Superintendent Mohamed Hameed downstairs. They pushed Mohamed Jinah and Ibrahim Manik into the streets at the mercy of the protesters.

There is video footage of police officers as well as civilians ruthlessly beating Ibrahim Manik (Lady). The footage shows police officers in uniform and in plain clothes beating Ibrahim Manik on the head as well as his body, with their bare hands and batons. The videos clearly show Corporal Waseem from the Special Operations Department, beating Ibrahim Manik on the head using an extendable Baton (made of metal). In the same footage some police officers are seen coming to Ibrahim Manik's aid. Later Ibrahim Manik was taken to the ground-floor lobby of police headquarters where he was laid while he was suffering from severe injuries to his head as well as other parts of his body. Ibrahim Manik was unable to stand due to these injuries.

Fearing the worst Ibrahim Anees, Ibrahim Manik and Ismail Atheef were taken to the Drug Enforcement Department (DED) on the 3rd floor of the building and were locked inside. But Hussein Shahil and Vikram made their way to the room and broke down the locked door. Once again Ibrahim Manik and Adnan Anees were attacked and beaten. Hussein Shahil grabbed Hussein Atheef by the collar and shook him before dragging him and Adnan Anees down the stairs and into a speedboat that was waiting to take them to Doonidoo prison.

The speedboat never made it to Doonidoo. Mohamed Jinah and Ibrahim Manik were beaten while they were inside Police Headquarters. Later Mohamed Jinah was handcuffed, beaten on the streets and arrested and taken to Doonidoo.

Video footage of the vandalized officers' Mess Room located on the 6th floor is now visible to the public. When they dragged the Deputy Minister Mohamed Mahir Easa onto the streets, one of the protesters jumped at him and kicked him right in the back sending him face forward onto the concrete. Video footage of a police officer throwing an object and injuring Mr. Mahir Easa has also become public.

Corporal Waseem hitting Ibrahim Manik on the head with a baton outside Shaheed Hussein Adam Building.

Forcing Mohamed Jinah onto a speedboat in handcuffs.

Mohamed Jinah being transported to Doonidoo.

A man from the crowd kicking Deputy Home Minister Mahir on the back when he was brought out of Police Headquarters.
1 = Mahir, 2 (below) = Assailant.

Calling for the President's resignation outside Police Headquarters
Clear video footage of mutinying police and military personnel, shamelessly calling out for the resignation of the constitutionally elected President of the Maldives are now public. The video shows both uniformed and plainclothes officers lined up on either side of the road in front of Police Headquarters. The video footage also displays Corporal Nisham (Dhonbe-Baby) standing in the middle of the road with a megaphone in hand disrespectfully shouting 'Abidhage Mohamed' (Abida's son) or 'Canaryge Nasheed' (Canaryge is President Nasheed's permanent address).

With him, a former police officer Hussein Shareef (Kafa Sharee) was also calling for President Nasheed's resignation. In conjunction with these calls, the crowd is seen and heard chanting 'isthiufaa' (resign).

Another scene shows Inspector Jaadhullah Majeed (GA. Villingili, Aroma) standing behind Sub-Inspector Ibrahim Mohamed (Yahoodhee Ibbe), giving directions to the crowd to lift their hands and call out for the President's resignation.

Another notable scene captured on camera was Vaikaradhoo MP Ali Arif from the opposition Progressive Party of Maldives (PPM) making his way between the police and military lines who were cheering him on.

Another video shows the Deputy Commissioner of Police arriving at the scene and the crowd gathering around him showing their support and lifting him onto their shoulders. At the same time Abdullah Riyaz is seen arriving at the scene and entering Police Headquarters.

Staff Sergeant Sofwath Rauf was spotted in the midst of the crowds gathered on either side of the road. He has been serving as an Instructor teaching basic as well as special skills for the past 5 years. The fact that an officer of his calibre had played a role in this rebellion, against the Police Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct shed light on the state of this MPS at the time.

Other officers active at the scene who should have been serving as an example as leaders to lower-ranked officers include Station Inspector Ishaaq Adamfulhu, Station Inspector Ali Faiz (who was on leave that day) as well as Azuham Areef and Jaawid who used to work in the Professional Standards Department.

Corporal Nisham calling out for the resignation of 'Abidhaage Mohamed' and 'Canaryge Nasheed' in front of the Shaheed Adam Building.

Chief Station Inspector Jaadhullah Majeed directing the crowd to raise their hands and call out for the President's resignation.

Police and MNDF personnel lined up in front of Police Headquarters and calling for the President's resignation.

Receiving News of the President's Decision to Resign
President Mohamed Nasheed's resignation came about only after several personnel from inside the Military Headquarters had gathered to call for the President's resignation, and also due to the fact that the gathered members of the military's rank and file refused to follow the chain of command.

The President had come to the realization that the large number of police and military officers who refused to respect his authority as the President and Commander-in-Chief was a clear indicator of the very real potential for escalation of the conflict to ensue with violence and destruction.

The President also believed he had reason to fear for his own life and the safety of his family.

It was due to of all the above mentioned reasons that President Nasheed felt it imperative that he must resign and therefore he announced his intention to the rebellious security forces that he would tender his resignation at the President's Office.

Once news of the events that had taken place inside the MNDF Headquarters reached the gathered mob outside the Headquarters of the National Security Forces, they began to celebrate. The political leaders who had played their part in executing the coup were seen inside the Police Headquarters at the time embracing each other, shaking hands and shedding tears of joy and relief upon receiving the news.

It was retired Colonel Mohamed Nazim who announced news of the President's decision to resign to the protesters gathered outside the gates of the main Military Headquarters. At the same instant Colonel Nazim announced that with immediate effect Ahmed Fairoosh would command the Maldivian Police Service as 'Acting Commissioner' and that all police activity would from then on be carried out under his direct supervision.

A few minutes later, Mohamed Nazim returned inside the Military Headquarters. The second time Nazim entered Military Headquarters he did not obtain authorization from the Defense Minister or a senior officer from the MNDF before entering the building. Once inside Nazim announced to the officers who were inside the gates that effective immediately Brigadier General Ahmed Shiyam would have command and control over the MNDF. His announcement was met with a loud 'Hooaah!' (The customary call of compliance used in the MNDF) from the personnel present.

In the same instance Mohamed Nazim dispatched his trusted comrade Vice Colonel Waheed to the President's office to oversee the goings-on there.

Colonel Nazim announcing and making it known that with immediate effect Ahmed Fairoosh would be commanding the Maldivian police and Mohamed Nazim himself would be in charge of the MNDF.

Abdullah Fairoosh's meeting with Senior Political Leaders
A meeting was held on February 7, 2012 between 10.30 and 11.30 am on the 5th floor of the Shaheed Hussein Adam building, in which almost all the high ranking police officers who took part in the coup and senior political leaders attended.

Ahmed Fairoosh presided over the meeting. The senior opposition leaders present for the meeting included Gasim Ibrahim, Thasmeen Ali, Dr Hassan Saeed, Dr Mohamed Jameel Ahmed, Sheikh Imran Abdullah, Dr Mauroof Hussain, Vice President of the Madhanee Ithihad (Civil Alliance) Abdullah Mohamed, Sheikh Mohamed Didi, Asadullah Shafy, Dr Mohamed Muizz, MP Ahmed Zameer, MP Ali Saleem as well as MP Mohamed Nasheed (Kutti).

At the meeting, after briefing the members on what the police planned to do to restore order in the streets, Ahmed Fairoosh gave the opportunity for the political leaders to speak. All members present took this opportunity to praise the Maldives Police Service.

Majority of the members spoke about the importance of bringing the Foreign Ministry and Finance Ministry under the control of the Police.

Sheikh Imran said in his statement that, 'We have conquered MNBC and by the grace of God succeeded in freeing the media.'

Abdullah Yaameen Abdul Gayoom and Abdullah Riyaz were reported to have stepped in while this particular meeting was taking placing.

When news of the imminent approach of the speedboat carrying Judge Abdullah Mohamed reached the conspirators, they hastened to go downstairs. At this very moment Abdulla Yaameen Abdul Gayoom advised those present that at the time it was more important to take President Mohamed Nasheed to Doonidoo to ensure his safety than to welcome the released Judge. Abdulla Yaameen is said to have repeated his statement thrice. However no one paid any heed to what Yaameen was saying and proceeded to leave the conference room.

Before leaving, however, Assistant Commissioner Hussein Waheed and Chief Superintendent Ahmed Saudhy assured Abdulla Yaameen that they would look into the matter.

The Arrival of the President at the President's Office
After announcing that he would resign once at the President's office, the President informed his security to gather the media and walked over to the Office of the Minister of Defense.

Prior to the President's arrival at the President's Office to announce his resignation, an officer from the military called up the Director of President's Supports of Muleeage, Ragheeb Ali, to send over a suit and tie for the President. Ragheeb did as he was instructed and when he went to the reception with the requested items, an officer had already arrived to pick it up. Ragheeb Ali noted that the person who had come to pick up the President's suit was not someone from the President's security detail.

Furthermore, photos later surfaced of a man accompanied by a military officer, entering Muleeage carrying two bags. This civilian was seen protesting with the mutinying personnel.

Nazim was seen entering the Military Headquarters and walking over to the building where the room of the Defense Minister was located, while the President was getting ready to go to the President's Office. And by the time Nazim came out of the building, a car was ready at the gates to take the President to the President's office. Soon afterwards, the President came out and got into the car. The Minister of Defense was at the President's side and he also got into the waiting car.

President Nasheed was driven under heavy military escort to the President's Office, accompanied by Nazim, Riyaz and Fayaz. When the President drove out of the gates towards the President's Office, a large number of Police and Military Personnel as well as civilians were seen standing on either side of the road (Ameer Ahmed Road) shouting obscenities at the President. Mutinying officers from the military who were standing around the car literally pushed it all the way to the President's Office.

The President's Last Moments at the President's Office
By midday some of the staff at the President's Office had received news of the President's arrival. They had also vaguely learned about his intention to meet with the Cabinet and his decision to hold a press conference. The senior members of staff at the President's Office found out about the President's decision to resign, through the television.

Under-Secretary Hussain Amir informed the press staff at the President's Office to get everything in order for the press conference. By afternoon, members of the press had arrived at the Office. A VIP crew from MNBC arrived in a white car that had a Maldivian flag at the back and drove through the main gate. A number of members from the Cabinet as well as a few senior officials from the President's Office stood in the courtyard.

A few minutes later with no authorization from the President's Office, Nazim, Riyaz and Fayaz (FA) accompanied by a troop of military personnel entered through the main gate at the south of the President's Office. Upon arrival Nazim seemingly took over and began to give instructions to the press staff on how to arrange the press conference.

Meanwhile a significant number of uniformed security officers as well as civilians were outside the gates of President's Office calling for the President's resignation. The angry mob continued to defame the President, his family and the MDP in profane language. In a little while, the President arrived in an MNDF car that was being pushed by a mob of uniformed protesters from the military.

Defense Minister Tholhath Ibrahim sat in the car at the President's side. As he exited the car, the President requested the Chief of Staff of the President's Office Ahmed Mausoom to follow him in. The President then walked over to the lift that would take him to his office. Mohamed Nazim, Mohamed Fayaz (F.A), Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa) and Abdullah Riyaz followed the President into the lift. When the lift reached the second floor, all except Abdullah Riyaz waited at the balcony. Abdullah Riyaz went down to the second floor, and made his way to the room that was used for Cabinet meetings.

In the meeting room, the staff was briefed on how the day would proceed. They were informed that the President would meet his Cabinet in the meeting room and would then hold a press conference where he would officially step down from office.

When the President came out of his office and asked about the arrangements to meet his Cabinet, Ahmed Mausoom informed him that the 'Sithi Maavaa' room was ready for him. In the Sitthi Maavaa room, the President met with the members of his Cabinet as well as advisory-level staff of the President's Office.

The Cabinet Ministers present at the meeting included Home Minister Hassan Afeef, Defense Minister Tholhath Ibrahim, Economic Development Minister Dr. Mahmood Raazee, Youth Minister Hassan Latheef, Fisheries Minister Dr. Ibrahim Didi, Finance Minister Mohamed Shihab, Education Minister Shifa Mohamed and Tourism Minister Dr. Mariyam Zulfa. Others present included the President's Special Envoy Ibrahim Hussain Zaki, Chief of Staff Ahmed Mausoom and Legal Secretary Hisaan Hussein.

While the meeting went on Abdullah Riyaz and Mohamed Nazim waited outside the Sitthi Maavaa room. In the meeting, the President said that he had no other choice but to resign and that he did not want to make use of firearms and risk shedding blood which was the only way to resolve the situation at that point. The use of weapons was simply out of the question and this left him with no other option but to hand in his resignation.

When members of the Cabinet asked him if there was absolutely no other possible way to find a solution, the President replied that if he did not hand in his resignation his life as well as the lives of many other people would be at stake. The President stated that the use of weapons was not an option he would consider.

With this, the President ended the meeting abruptly and went to the balcony of the second floor where he met with Defense Minister Tholhath. Meanwhile Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Fayaz was waiting near the lift of the second floor. Lieutenant-Colonel Ahmed Fayaz received a call and following which he asked a member of the President's SPG CP to locate the President and to ask him to hurry up and come downstairs.

The Cabinet meeting that was held in the Sitthi Maavaa meeting room.

After the meeting with the Defense Minister, the President, followed by the Cabinet ministers, went downstairs. The ministers then went into the 'Dharumavantha' room, where the press conference was to take place

The President walked over to the room next to the Dharumavantha room which is a special room used for presenting letters of appointment to political appointees. Nazim, Riyaz and Fayaz (FA) followed him in once again, without an invitation. Abdulla Riyaz stood right in front of the President. When Mohamed Nazim realized that the President did not intend to spend much time in the room and was preparing to address the press conference, he asked the President for his letter of resignation. The President replied that he was about to hand it to them and asked his Secretary of Legal Affairs Ms. Hisaan Hussein to get him the letter. However before she could walk out, the President exclaimed that he did not need to type it, but would just go ahead and write it then and there. The President then asked for a blank piece of paper and pen and Hisaan obliged. The President placed the paper on a podium that was near the door of the room leaned forward and began composing his resignation letter.

Even as the President wrote his letter Abdullah Riyaz stood behind him on his left and Fayaz (FA) stood at the south-eastern corner of the Podium with Nazim at his side. All three of them stood watching while the President composed the much awaited letter. In addition to the three men, the President's Legal secretary Hisaan and Chief of Staff at the President's Office Mausoom were also present in the room. Once the President was done writing the letter, he called Hisaan over and handed the letter over to her.

At that moment, Nazim asked the President if he could have the pen that he had used to sign the letter. The President immediately asked Nazim why he wanted the pen, and Nazim replied that he wanted to keep it for its historical value. The President however said that it belonged to Hisaan he handed the pen over to her. Hisaan then took the letter and walked out of the room.

When the President finally began to make his way to the room prepared for press, Mohamed Nazim said to Mohamed Fayaz, 'Let's go to Seagull (a local cafe) and celebrate!'

Following is the speech that was given by the President while rendering his resignation:

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most merciful
Beloved people of the Maldives! assalaam alaikum

As it is clear to me today, if I continue on as the President of the Maldives, tragedy and devastation may befall the people of this nation. And thus I have handed in my resignation. Ruling by force was never my intention.

I made this decision when I realized the only way to sustain my government would be to use extreme force which in its wake would destroy the lives of many. I believe this to be true and thus have resigned from my post.

I also believe that if I carry on, there would most certainly be foreign intervention and since I have always wished nothing but the best for my nation and my people and will continue to do so, and keeping in mind the tremendous support I have received from the people, I am handing in my resignation sincerely, and am stepping down only for the good of the people.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of the people of the Maldives. These three years the people have worked tirelessly with me. And as I see it the people have benefited greatly from their efforts.

My hope is that democratic values persist in this nation. I want justice to prevail in my home. I have always wanted this country to develop and its people to progress.

I hope that tomorrow is a much better day than today. I pray that we prosper in this life and the next.

walhamdhulilaah. wassalaam alaikum

The President announcing his resignation.

After the press conference, in the room where the President wrote the letter, Nazim came and asked the President why he had not said the things he told him to say. The President replied that he had said all that was left to say to the press and that 'this is all over now.'

Saying this he went to the balcony located on the second floor where Cabinet ministers and senior staff had gathered. The President then met with the staff in the Rehendhi room. The President thanked all of them for their hard work during his time in office and told them to be prepared to serve the new government with the same zeal.

While the President spoke to his staff, Nazim stood downstairs in the portico. After concluding his meeting with the staff of the President's Office, the President went downstairs to where Nazim was waiting. Nazim assured the President that he would do everything in his power to ensure his safety and well-being, and if the President needed a few more days at Muleeaage he would gladly arrange it as well. When he did not receive a reply, Nazim asked him to take the car to Muleeaage but the President said that he had always walked home from the office and would prefer to go on foot.

Having said this, the President began to walk towards Muleeaage with Nazim at his heel. Meanwhile the roads were packed with protesters shouting profanities. Members of the Cabinet as well as senior officials from the President's Office also walked with the President to his official residence.

Once he was at Muleeage, Nazim instructed Ismail Fayaz, H. Emeraldge (who was not an employee at the residence) that no one was to come in or go out without his knowledge. The staff at Muleeaage had noticed this strange man moving around the place prior to the President's arrival. After personally taking down the flag that was hoisted in the President's residence, Nazim arranged transportation to send everyone home.

After reaching Muleeaage, the President found out that his family including his wife and two daughters had gone to M. Yaaqoothge (his wife's home) earlier in the day. The President stayed in Muleeaage until 6.30 in the evening and then went to his paternal home, G. Canaryge.

It is clear that since day one of their electoral defeat, the opposition parties who were on the losing end of the Presidential elections held in 2008 have been plotting to overthrow the democratically elected government which was formed on 11th November 2008.

It is evident from our findings that on 7 February 2012 the democratically elected government was overthrown when the efforts of the opposing political parties were reinforced by mutinying members of the military and the police.

These unlawful officers abandoned their Commander-in-Chief, the President of the Maldives, and pledged allegiance to the opposition parties.

Contrary to the claims of the current government and its supporters, the opposing political parties have been planning this coup to overthrow Mohamed Nasheed's government for a very long time. Key players in this coup include religious scholars in the opposition, Parliament Members, major businessmen as well as two local TV channels, DhiTV and VTV, which are controlled by opposing political leaders.

Interim Vice President of PPM Umar Naseer, Mohamed Fayaz (FA), the current Minister of Defense Colonel (retired) Mohamed Nazim and the current Commisioner of Police Abdulla Riyaz played a pivotal role in executing the coup. And from what we have found, Lieutenant-Colonel Ahmed Fayaz (Papa), Lieutenant-Colonel Abdul Rauf and Brigadier-General Ahmed Shiyam were also very much involved.

The then Vice-President Dr. Waheed's support was a major reinforcement for the perpetrators of the coup in successfully executing their plans. The message delivered by Dr. Waheed was a pledge to join the opposition forces and gave support to the mutinying police, broadcast after midnight on 6 February 2012, and provided the support they needed to see it through.

On the morning of February 7, mutinying police officers were repeatedly advised and given the opportunity to abandon their rebellion and retreat before military personnel were sent in to diffuse the situation. The President himself spoke to the officers but they refused to follow his commands.

From this Report it is clear that the police officers who came out in protest on the night of the 6th and the 7th day of February committed crimes punishable by law.

A tactical plan on how to control the mutinying police officers was not drawn up and presented to the Commander-in-Chief.

Following the brutal actions of police officers towards civilians, the Commander-in-Chief ordered the military to bring the situation under control. Though the Military was successful in moving the mutinying police officers away from the Republican Square, when military personnel broke their the lines and joined the protesters, it came as an added strength to the mutiny.

Even after the mutiny had taken place and escalated to tragic proportions, some high ranking officers of the MNDF were in no hurry to bring the situation under control. Based on the events that took place inside the Headquarters, it is clear that these officers were in league with the architects of the coup.

After seeing the hordes of military personnel joining in the protests, and after receiving news that more people wanted to join the rebellion, and when the Commander of the Male' area admittedly failed to carry out his mission and as a large number of military personnel began calling for his resignation, and seeing more and more members of the Military Police (who were responsible for controlling the gates) joining the protest made it clear to the President that his safety inside the Military Headquarters was compromised.

The fact that the entire Maldivian National Defense Force had gone under the control of a civilian, while the President and Commander-in-Chief was in their presence indicated that the security forces were clearly unwilling to defend the constitutionally elected leadership of the country.

Also, the fact that the President went to the President's Office under dangerous conditions and three civilians and select military personnel were closely monitoring the President's movement inside and issuing orders to the staff inside, signifies that the President's resignation took place under duress.

This report proves that up till the President's resignation, or in other words, up to the point where the President's letter of resignation reached the hands of Speaker of Parliament, the security forces were neither under the control of neither the President nor the appointed heads of those institutions but rather following the commands of outsiders. This is especially pertinent in light of the fact that the security forces are the two main institutions legally mandated to maintain peace and stability of the nation and provide protection for the government, its leaders and the people.

In light of the evidence presented in this report, it is certain that the transfer of power on 7 February 2012 took place after the President had resigned following a coup carried out by the police and military. This report asserts that the President's resignation had been tendered under duress as he faced a situation where he was certain his own life and the safety of his people was compromised.

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