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Iyye, Yesterday - Chapter 10
A detailed history of the Huraage leaders
Abdul Hakeem Hussein Manik
10 August 1997

translated by Fareesha Abdulla with assistance from Majid Abdul-Wahhab and Michael O'Shea

Verse from Faiza's poem

The beginning of the Huraage family
H.C.P. Bell gives the origin of the Huraage family as Dhon Maruduru but he has left out what happened before.

Hassan IX of the Hilaaly dynasty went to Cochin and became a Christian so he could take control of Maldives with the help of the Portuguese viceroy in Goa. However, he was unsuccessful. This king's daughter married a Portuguese man of high status and had two sons. One was called Dhon Laveez, and the other was called Dhon Malaveez. These two sons waged war against Maldives with a large Portuguese force that they led to Male' during the reign of King Iskandar. The historical folklore surrounding this was published in the Aafathis newspaper No. 47, 25 February 1993. It is too long to recount here, so I refer the reader to that article.

Dhon or Don?
In the Portuguese language, 'Don' is equivalent to 'Mr' in English. So the two noblemen who waged war were Don Laveez and Don Malaveez. The very common names Dhon Manik, Dhon Kamana, Dhon Manike and Dhon Thutthu which are found in Maldives do not signify that these people have a fair complexion [translators' note: dhon in Dhivehi means 'fair' or 'white'] but it is the result of the Portuguese 'Don' being Dhivehified. So Dhon Maruduru is also Don Maruduru, and Dhon Bandarain can be Don Bandarain. Before he became king, he was known as Don Hassan Manik.

The beginning of the dynasty
The Huraage family did not start with Dhon Louis (as Bell claims). It began with Dhon Laveez. Dhon Maruduru's great-grandfather was king Hassan IX of the Hilaaly dynasty. He is the king some historians refer to as the 'Christian king of Maldives' who converted to Christianity to gain control over Maldives.

Louis is a French word, but before a male French name, the appellation is Monsieur. Dhon Louis is a name created by only one person, and that person, in my view, wrote a great deal of history without carrying out any research. His name was Mohamed Ameen.

Except for Mohamed Ameen, many people descended from Dhon Maruduru say that Dhon Laveez was the father of Dhon Maruduru. My father told me that Abdul Majeed told him, 'At the top of our ancestors is a foreign person called Dhon Laveez.' In addition to this, it is known that Abdul Majeed also said that N. Th. Hassan Didi was the person who talked most about Dhon Laveez.

A long time ago when Mohamed Ameen was alive, Hassan Didi said that Dhon Louis did not exist. Hassan Didi also told me the same thing. 'I don't want to be the ancestor of a foreigner. I am much more closely related to Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan than Mohamed Ameen but I would prefer to be a descendant of Dhon Maruduru and Dhon Laveez who were descended from the Hilaalee dynasty.

Similarly, Ibrahim Hilmy Didi who is a descendant of the same family, used to tell a long story. It is also part of folklore and the story ends with Dhon Laveez as the father of Dhon Maruduru. The mother turns out to be Fatma Manike, the daughter of Huraa Bodu Kateeb. Dhon Maruduru was the couple's twelfth child. The eleven others died but because he was called Maruduru, he survived to become an adult. Jaufaru Kamaludeen from the Huraage family, agrees with this version. He tells the story exactly the same way as Ibrahim Hilmy.

Hassan Ahmed Manik also once said that Dhon Maruduru was called that name because all his older brothers died. To protect him from the fureytha, he was named 'Maruduru' according to the traditions of Maldives. Hassan Manik had nothing further to add. All this has been recorded in an issue of Amaazu although I cannot remember the date and the number.

Abdul Razzaq Abdul Wahhab of the Huravee family also wrote the same folklore in an issue of Aafathis. He concludes that the grandson of king Hassan IX Dhon Laveez was the father of Dhon Maruduru.

The assumptions of a single speculator should not have the power to change the name of Dhon Laveez to the Dhon Louis.

Looking at the Huravee family in a different way
According to scholars of geneology, blood has a certain influence on the character of a person. Descendants are also affected by the traditions and the culture of the country where an ancestor is born. When we consider the matter from this perspective, there is a lot of evidence to prove that Dhon Maruduru's father was Dhon Laveez. Because no good leader has ever come from Dhon Maruduru's descendants. An article of mine was published under this headline in Aafathis. This article also mentions Dhon Bandarain.

I have not forgotten the tremendous service that Dhon Bandarain provided for Maldives. The Cannanore king's flag flew on the fort of Maldives and they installed a governor named Kanaka Foolhu. Muleege Dhon Hassan Manik killed him and liberated Maldives.

It is too big a story to write here. For a long time, he carried out many jihads by providing umraanee services for the royal palace. He only accepted the throne when he discovered that the king, who the Malabaris had captured and kidnapped, had died in Minicoy island.

Dhon Hassan Manik became king in 1759, and now known as Dhon Bandarain, he had total power in Maldives. The people had full affection for him. Dhivehi history books show there was a close relationship between the French in Pondicherry and Dhon Bandarain. 'Moostharu Milli' facilitated this French connection. I believe 'Moostharu Milli' is the Dhivehi version of the French for 'Mr Tharu Millie' (translators' note: H. C. P. Bell gives the Frenchman's name as Monsieur Le Termellier).

If Dhon Bandarain had so desired, he could have sent some young Maldivians to study in Pondicherry. At the time there were schools and colleges in Pondicherry teaching in the French language. It was the time when the James Watt steam engine was being developed. Instead of sails, steam engines were being used in large vessels. (Translator's note: James Watt patented his improved steam engine design in 1769, and the first successful steam ship was demonstrated on the Delaware river in the USA by John Fitch in 1787.)

If Dhon Bandarain had wanted to, he could have sent many Maldivian children to attain higher Islamic education at Azhar University in Egypt or he could have instructed Muhibudeen Fandiyaru Kaleyfan in Male' to set up a school and begin educating the young.

But Dhon Bandarain was a descendant of Dhon Laveez and he had no inclination to provide education to the people. When he became king, he did not make any significant reforms.

In the final hours of his life, he chose sultan Mohamed Giyasudeen (the martyred king) as the heir to the throne. Dhon Bandarain's eldest son, his full brothers and his uncle's son Mohamed Manikfaan, all remained determinedly against the new king. As the poem says, 'challenging him to obtain rule, by whatever means.' Less than eight years after the death of Dhon Bandarain, a deep animosity had developed and Giyasudeen was martyred when they drowned him in the sea.

Sultan Mohamed Mu-izzudeen, who was reigning at the time, and his uncle's son Mohamed Manikfaan were the two men who murdered Mohamed Giyasudeen. Mohamed Manikfaan was the most prominent and powerful man in the court.

After the murder, the descendants of Dhiyamigili Bandarain were attacked and robbed of their property including their books. All the things done to them are detailed in the Dhivehi Tareek published by the Male' National Centre of Linguistics and Historical Research in 1981 and printed by Novelty Press.

Then Sultan Hassan Nooradeen I ascended to the throne. He was the second son of Dhon Bandarain and he became king in 1779. He built a large ship and left for Mecca after loading it with a lot of Maldivian gold and goods, and four large guns. He left on 20 January 1799. Things went terribly wrong and the guns, goods and gold were stolen by the chief of Mecca, Shareef Ghalib. The king was left destitute and he contracted smallpox and died. The account of this incident is found in the Dhivehi Tareek, starting at page 261.

Sultan Hassan Nooradeen I who was the second son of Dhon Bandarain, married a daughter of Huraa Bodu Mureedh, and the koli announcing the title of Doshimeyna Kilegefan was held for Hussein Manik, the son of Bodu Mureed. Hussein became Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

Hassan Nooradeen's son became king Mohamed Mueenudeen I. The mother of this king, and Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan, both had the same father. I am not sure if they had the same mother.

Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan had four very powerful sons and also a daughter. The sons were Ismail Didi, Ali Didi, Ahmed Didi and Ibrahim Didi. The daughter's name was Khadeeja Didi and she married king Mueenudeen I.

Their son was Sultan Mohamed Imadudeen IV who reigned continuously for 48 years and became popularly known as the 'Old Monarch'. The deeply sinful life of this king is outlined in the Dhivehi Tareek mentioned above. It is a lengthy story so I leave the reader with the reference.

During the reign of Mohamed Mueenudeen I, there was a serious revolt led by the sons of Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan. The story is told on page 307 of the Dhivehi Tareek; readers can find a full account there. It was a brutal revolt, carried out with no concern for Maldivians and it caused great harm to both the king and the people.

After being crowned as king, Imadudeen IV brought his grandfather Hussein Doshimeyna's four convicted sons back from Minicoy. Among them was Ahmed Didi, better known as Dhon Ahmed Didi. He understood foreign languages to a certain extent so he was given the position of prime minister and a koli was held for his Doshimeyna title. However, the most influential person in government was Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan.

Dhon Ahmed's son was Galolhuge Ali Didi, and after the death of his father, a koli was held to make Ali the Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

It was during Dhon Ahmed Didi's prime ministership that the British captain Moresby and his men came to survey Maldives. The account of this episode can also be found in the Dhivehi Tareek.

A serious feud developed between Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan and the father and son from Galolhuge house. The king at the time, Imadudeen IV sided with Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. Because of this favouritism, Dhon Ahmed Doshimeyna Kilegefan went into the Mathige building in the palace grounds with a long sword in the middle of the night. He wanted to murder the king who was his nephew. The king was in his room with the door locked so Dhon Ahmed asked him loudly to open the door. While this was going on, a group of people told Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan about it and he went to Mathige. Without any hesitation, he went up to Dhon Ahmed and said, 'Younger brother, give me that sword. A sword should not be used unless it has been presented to you by the Edhuru Beykalun.' Dhon Ahmed was startled and he handed over the sword before hurrying downstairs from Mathige and running off.

He received permission to take an odi and left for Galle in Sri Lanka with some of his followers.

After Dhon Ahmed had left Maldives, the prime minister's position was given to his son, Ali. He was a big merchant and later a koli was held for him to be Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

So the prime minister was now known as al-Ameer Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan. The huge feud between Kakaage and Galolhuge (later known as Athireege) intensified. Kakaage Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan's eldest son Mohamed Didi (later called Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan), the second son Abdullah Ali (later called Abdullah Fashana Kilegefan) and the third son Ismail Didi (later known as Doshimeyna Manikfan), all three of them with their father made a compact and decided to ruin the business interests of Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

As you may already know from another essay, the Kakaage noblemen were more powerful. They planned to grant permission to trade in Male' to the biggest Borah trader of the time, Ali Bahi Seih Jeevanji. This was the start of the Borahs gaining control over the import and export trade of Maldives. They built shops in Male'. Maldives' biggest and wealthiest merchant, Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan, gave up the positions of prime minister and treasurer, and settled in Galle in Sri Lanka.

Mohamed Ameen writes in his book 'Gratitude of a Son' that when Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan left Maldives, the contents of the treasury box was nearly empty. The father and his three sons had given away the economic independence of Maldives.

As soon as Ali Kilegefan (Galolhuge Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefaan) arrived in Galle he established connections with a Borah trading company even bigger than Jeevanji's, called Kareemji Jaufarji. Later, Eggamuge house nobles became active in the Maldivian political sphere and they established contact with M.S. Hibathullah Bahi Company. This contact began during the reign of Mohamed Imadudeen.

The eldest son of the Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan who went to Galle was Ibrahim Didi. He studied English in Galle.

This was at the time when Imadudeen IV, the Old Monarch, passed away and his second son was crowned on 10 January 1882. His royal name was Sultan Ibrahim Nooradeen and he is popularly known as the 'Nooradeen monarch'. Among the first things he did, was to send a letter to Ibrahim Didi in Galle inviting him to return to Male' and marry the king's half-sister on his father's side. This royal woman became popularly known as the Athireege princess. Ibrahim Didi was now the prime minister and a koli was held for his Doshimeyna Kilegefan title.

Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan lived in Athireege which was originally a very well-built house in the Maldive style. Even now, Ali Doshimeyna Kilegefan's old house is still called by its old name Eggamuge. Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan was given the prime minister's position after the sacking of the then prime minister, Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan.

Again, there was turmoil among the gentry. Nooradeen Bandarain was not an easy-going king. He had a strong personality. This is all explained in the book I wrote called The History of the Big Fire printed by Novelty in February 1981.

In the book, there are photos of the two competing prime ministers. For this essay, what is more important is the portrait of the two men, father and son, who put Maldives under the chains of British colonialism. The father and son were Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan and his eldest son Ahmed Didi, later known as Ahmed Kuda Doshimeyna Kilegefan and later still as Ahmed Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

In my opinion this father and son betrayed the sovereignty of the country and they deserve to have their names recorded in bright red among the list of traitors.

Ahmed Didi, the son of Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan, had learned English well for seven years from native English speakers at Dutchmond College in Galle. Using this skill, his first act of betrayal was when he facilitated his father's selfish plan.

At that time, Mohamed Mueenudeen II was on the throne and the prime minister was Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan. As mentioned in 'The History of the Big Fire', Maldives was taken over by British colonialism on 16 December 1887.

At this point, I would like to show my own portrait of the father and son to the younger generation.

Sultan Mohamed Mueenudeen II signed under duress. This is clear from The History of the Big Fire, because the British ship came back a second time. It is also known that Naibu Thutthu refused to sign the agreement. But in complete contradiction of the truth, Mohamed Ameen wrote that Naibu Thutthu signed the agreement. From The History of the Big Fire, the reader can see that Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan was chained around the legs and banished to Addu atoll. Two British officials got involved in internal affairs and gave orders to bring back the Big Fire rebels and restore them to their previous positions.

I shall also write now about some things that were not mentioned in that book. Namely, the British issued instructions to remove the reigning Mohamed Mueenudeen II and to reinstate Ibrahim Nooradeen (who had been deposed) in his place. They also wanted Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan brought back and appointed as prime minister again. They insisted that the royal odi should be sent to Addu to bring him back. This all happened before the departure of the British ship that was anchored in Male' harbour.

Then began the second reign of Nooradeen Bandarain. He ruled for two or three years and then died.

I would like to mention here, that from the day the reign of Mohamed Imaadudeen IV ended, to the day Nooradeen Bandarain's eldest son was crowned as Sultan Mohamed Shamsudeen III, I do not know how many times over those 20 years the prime minister's position was swapped between these two related nobles, Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan and Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan.

Mohamed Mueenudeen was crowned for the purpose of signing that agreement with the British. He was not a political leader and he did not have a strong personality.

Athireege Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan did not forget the iron chains that had been put on his legs and carried a grudge against Mohamed Mueenudeen until the end. Despite this, Mueenudeen promoted Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan. Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan out-manoeuvred him and gained the prime ministership. The new prime minister, assisted by Henveiruge Hakuraa Manikfaan and Naibu Thutthu, sentenced the offenders who took part in the Big Fire. The king himself has no influence over these matters.

Sultan Ibrahim Nooradeen died on the night of Monday 28 November 1892. The king was placed in his grave after the militia had been informed that his youngest son (the New Palace Prince) had been crowned as Mohamed Imadudeen V.

The new king was very young. Athireege Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan was the person who had arranged this succession while the new prime minister and other prominent nobles wanted to crown Mohamed Shamsudeen, the eldest son of the deceased king.

Shortly after Imadudeen V's reign began, Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan decided to depose him and to crown Hassan Izzuddheen's second son (the Big Elder Prince) as Sultan Mohamed Imadudeen VI. This change was arranged in the following way. The prime minister was Athireege Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan but it was not long before a group of nobles got together, and after ousting him, they made Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan the prime minister. The main group of nobles actively supporting this change were Kakaage Mohamed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, Kakaage Abdullah Fashana Kilegefan, Kakaage Ismail Didi, Hassan Velana Manikfan, Kuda Sidi, the son of Dhoshee Kaleygefan, Eggamuge Tuttu Ali Didi, Eggamuge Ahmed Didi, and Eggamuge Abdulla Didi. Sheikh Mohamed Jamaludeen should also be included.

Sultan Mohamed Imadudeen VI was a thoughtful king who knew the Hindi language and was fond of knowledge. He had respect for learned people and built the Male' breakwater. He also planned the dredging of Male' harbour and the project was successful. The best thing he did was arrange the translation, by a committee of learned people, of the Arabic document that recorded historical events in Maldives over the previous 400 years. This was how the Huravee family was discovered. This history, called the Dhivehi Tareek, was printed by Novelty press in 1981 at the request of the government.

The king reigned for about 10 years. Athireege Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan, his eldest son Ahmed Kuda Doshimeyna Kilegefan and his second son Abdul Majeed, all three had political wisdom and diplomatic skills unlike the nobles who surrounded Mohamed Imadudeen VI.

As the poem says, Athireege nobles 'were determined to obtain power by whatever means.' Due to Ibrahim Doshimeyna Kilegefan's sharp mind, Ahmed Kuda Doshimeyna Kilegefan's capable skills, and the hard work and astuteness of Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, it did not take long to remove Mohamed Imadudeen VI.

Other factors prompting this change were the Mohamed Imadudeen's royal haj trip when he met a lady in Suez, and a second trip when he married her. While he was involved in these matters, the responsibilities of state were borne by the king's paternal and maternal brothers, Mandhooge Dhoshee Manipulu and Tuttu Manipulu. The royal Mathige quarters remained virtually unoccupied most of the time. Only the royal servants slept there. This story is getting long. I will leave it here.

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