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Heroic Warriors and Lazy Kings, 1759-1827
National Centre of Linguistics and Historical Research, Male', Maldives
First printing 1981, second printing 1993
translated by Fareesha Abdulla with assistance from Majid Abdul-Wahhab and Michael O'Shea
Notes and section titles by Maldives Culture

King Gazi Hassan Izzudeen 1759-1767
Slavery in Tellicherry, Malabar
A large number of slaves and kidnapped children were sold in Tellicherry (Thalassery on Keralan coast). Slavery was an established institution in Malabar during this period and Tellicherry was also a centre for the slave trade.

When kidnapped children and slaves were brought to this settlement, the factors rescued such persons and sent them to their native rajas for proper restoration to their families.

The factors issued an order for the registration of slaves already living in their settlement. They further prescribed that when slaves were brought and sold in Tellicherry, within 24 hours of their arrival, they should be registered in the secretary's office showing the name of the purchaser or owner of the slave with the details like the place, purchase price etc.

For such a registration, a fee of one silver piece was to be paid to the factory. If the slave once registered was sold again, a fresh registration should be obtained by the new purchaser or owner. For failure to register, a penalty of Rs50 was imposed on the owner.

In 1789, the Bombay governor issued an order that no individual from Tellicherry should send children under the description of slaves to Bombay unless they be registered as such in the presence of the chief.

The Tellicherry Board neither condemned or abolished the institution of slavery in their settlement. They desired only to prevent the kidnapping of children or the theft of slaves, and did not interfere in native customs.

History of the Tellicherry Factory 1683-1794
K.K.N. Kurup 1985

Aliraja and the Bibi of Cannanore and Laccadives
In 1765, the Aliraja, who already claimed all ambegris, tortise shell, and cowries from the Laccadives, asserted right of monopoly purchase over all coir. Prior to this, coir had been taxed by export duties of 6-10%, and rice imports by a similar amount.

Coir was selling at Rs60-70 for 300 kg. Aliraja wanted to pay only Rs30 per 300 kg plus receive 10% tax, and also charge 10% tax on rice imports used to pay for the coir.

Amini island rebelled along with the islands of Kiltan, Kadamat and Chetlat. They gave their alleigance to the Tipu Sultan, who was in technical alliance with Aliraja. The Aliraja and Bibi of Cannanore suppressed the revolts in those islands and Kavaratti as well.

In 1793, coir from the Laccadives was exempt from duty at Cannanore but the islanders were still paying tithes to the Bibi of Cannanore.

In 1827, the price of coir fell suddenly from Rs65 to Rs20 per 300kg. It continued to fall until recovering slightly to below Rs30 from 1835-1847. The Bibi and her agents in Laccadives ensured the losses were borne mainly by the islanders.

In Minicoy, only the cowrie monolpoly was enforced by Cannanore. Trees were taxed, and tapping rights, but coir was subject to a simple annual poll tax of 20 pounds per male and five pounds per female.

In 1826 the set Minicoy trading standard of 1:2 (cowries:rice) was threatened by the Bibi who wanted the cowrie value lowered by 50%. Following fighting, a compromise saw cowrie values lowered by 25%.

After the accidental visit of a French vessel to Laccadives in 1836 carrying Malay seamen, the Aliraja monopolised the sea slug trade. He also had control of markets in limes, salt, tobacco and dye.

Aliraja taxed pilots on their earnings with a charge per voyage based on the length of their trip.

In 1850, the Bibi of Cannanore possessed five barques and seven odi, in addition to several vessels exclusively engaged in trade with Maldives and the west coast of India, but by 1858 her ships were reduced to one barque and three odi, and many years have passed since the last survivor of her fleet, the Hydros, was broken up.

Stress of competition with vessels of superior build and rig has decreased profits for Minicoy boat owners. They no longer go to Mauritius, the Persian Gulf, Moulmein and Singapore. They are confined to Maldives, Galle, the Nicobars, Balasore and Calcutta.

During the nineteenth century, Agatti islanders complained in a petition that they were taxed two and half percent to pay for the Aliraja's domestic chaplain, and a further two and half percent for the Cannanore palace cat.

Crime and punishment
'In Laccadives ordeals were frequently resorted to for the discovery of offenders and there are traditions of executions for witchcraft and of punishment by mutilation inflicted a hundred years ago

Wholesale confiscation of property, or gang robbery was the common punishment for more heinous crimes. In some cases the whole family was exterminated.
C.A. Innes, edited by F.B. Evans, 1908, 1951

The new king's name was King Gazi Hassan Izzudeen. He moved into Veyodoshu palace and directed a swift rebuilding of the inner palace. [The name Gazi means 'mighty holy warrior'.]

People from the wards removed the overgrown milkweed and bricks from the burnt-out walls and former dwellings, levelled the ground and built new houses.

For the first time, the Hitan gate was constructed and a floor laid out. Then the administration benches were set up, a clerics' bench was built, and then the security guards' gate. The Bodukiba house was erected in the palace grounds, followed by the inner and outer sections of the Kudakiba house.

When reconstruction was completed, they moved into the inner palace in 1760 (date given in words) or 1762 (date given in numerals). Hassan had become king on 6 December 1759.

Gazi Hassan Izzudeen was an intelligent and very fair person, who fulfilled the demands of the kingship with finesse. He treated the children of king Ibrahim properly, and Aminath Rani Kilegefan received great respect too. Due to his fairness and planning skills, the people fully supported him.

Earthquake 1759
On the ninth day after he became king, 14 December 1759, an earthquake shook Male'. Other islands also shook. On Sunday 23 December 1759, a huge fire broke out in Henveiru and king Dana Mohamed's mosque, king Ibrahim's mosque and many shops were burnt. Aminath Kabafan's palace was to the north of this latter mosque.

The king assigned various positions to people, and there were some changes. The king's brother Hussein Manikfan was made the supreme defence minister. The king's paternal brother, Ali Manikfan, was made the Ranabandeyri Kilege. Gazi Mohamed Muhibudeen retained his position as chief judge. He was the son of Hussein Afeefudeen the paternal brother of Hassan Tajudeen. Ali Hakura Takurufan the son of Fasmandoo Hassan Hakura Takurufan became a commander. The public works portfolio was given to Ali Mafaiy Takurufan the son of Hussein Velana Takurufan.

Muraidoo Hussein Dahara Takurufan became foreign minister. The new health minister was Mohamed Kaleygefan the son of Negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan, the slave freed by the Devadoo king. Umar Gada Hamadi Kaleygefan was given the position of government secretary. At the time of the trouble with the Malabars, he was one of those who had escaped and found refuge in various places. Many people like him returned during this king's reign.

Ma-eboodoo Hassan Damadi Kaleygefan was placed in charge of the armed forces. Umar Manik, who had helped the new king take the throne, became chief treasurer. He was officially named Umar Saifudeen Handeygirin Takurufan. Hassan Kudabandeyri Kaleygefan had been the javelin instructor but he lost that position.

Hussein Gadahamadi Manikfan, the son of Mohamed Gadahamada Manikfan and grandson of Nolivaranfaru Hussein Bodubandeyri Kaleygefan, was also dismissed.
Maldivians experienced a lot of improvements as a result of these new arrangements.

Aliraja attacks Male' 1761
In early 1761, Cannanore Aliraja ordered a sailing ship, two warships and five odi loaded with weapons and prepared for battle. They arrived at Tiladunmati (Haa Alifu) atoll. Aliraja had installed a Turk called Hassan, son of Mohamed Garutali, as commander leading a force of sixty Turks and two hundred Malabaris. They moored near Male' at Vihamanafushi island (now Kurumba resort) on 3 April 1761. Next day, they were just outside Doonidoo and the vessels moored there while men landed at Funadoo and Hulule' islands. The men on Funadoo built sand walls and prepared for war. As the sun rose on Thursday 7 April 1761, they began to fire guns at Male'. Holy God spared the island's people from their bombardment and only one person was hit - a woman. She died.

When the Malabars arrived, there was a trading ship from Bengal in the harbour. The navigator was from Balasor in the Bay of Bengal, and his name was Miya Khan the Muguli. The Malabars captured his ship, and he was arrested and taken away. People from Male' sneaked into Hulule' where the enemy had landed, and put poison in the drinking-water well. All who drank the water became sick and left the island.

On Saturday 11 April, the Maldivians loaded their guns onto the Roanujehi Kafu odi and it sailed around Funadoo island, firing at the enemy. With their situation intolerable, the Aliraja's men abandoned the island on Monday 13 April 1761. They retreated to Donakuli island on northern Tiladunmati atoll and stayed there. Male' people prepared an odi fleet, loaded their weapons of war and quickly embarked.

The king appointed Hussein Shah Bandar Velana Takurufan and Mulee Ali Famuladeyri Takurufan as commanders. The Maldivians sailed towards Hanimadoo on southern Tiladunmati atoll where ten Turks had been harassing and attacking the islanders. The Malabaris sailed off in their ships when they saw the Male' vessels approaching, leaving the Turks to be arrested on Hanimadoo. All the Malabar odi and other sailing ships had been chased away, so the Maldivians returned to Male' in August 1761. They were received with great honour and the king himself went to the beach to greet them. The Malabaris went back to their country and killed Miya Khan who was in the ship they captured, and Ahmed Takurufan as well.

Later, the chief judge left for the haj, and his position was given to Ibrahim Manikfan the son of Shamsudeen Fandiyaru Kaleygefan. His official name became Gazi Ibrahim Baha-udeen.

In early 1763, during the third year of the reign of king Sultan Gazi Hassan Izzudeen Siri Kularanmeeba Danalaveera, king Ibrahim's son Mohamed Giyasudeen Manikfan escaped from the Malabaris and was staying at Ganjam in the Bay of Bengal. There he met Deenu Mohamed the navigator and returned to Maldives in his odi. They arrived at Mulaku atoll and from the island of Diggaru, Mohamed Manikfan travelled north in a fishing odi and anchored outside Funadoo.

When he landed in Male', he had an audience with the king. After listening to his story, the king ordered the beating of the drums for the militia. They assembled with the aristocracy and heard the news. Not everyone approved of allowing king Ibrahim's son into Male' island, but the king went straight to the beach with the military and greeted Mohamed Giyasudeen Manikfan with the full protocol required for a king returning to Male'. Another parasol was raised, suggesting there were now two kings in the procession, and Mohamed Giyasudeen was led to the inner palace.

Deenu Mohamed Nevikaleyge was king Ibrahim's slave. Because of the great service done by both this navigator and the captain of the ship, they were rewarded with admission to the majlis. The prince was looked after in the inner palace as if he was the son of Gazi Hassan. All these events occurred on Wednesday 16 February 1763.

Afterwards, the North royal house and the South royal house were built in the palace grounds. Through God's mercy, palace construction continued. Royal houses were built, and the burnt and damaged walls were repaired. New walls and bathing tanks were installed.

People were sent to the atolls to take a census of the poverty-stricken people of Maldives. The census documents were given to the islands, and conditions improved for many of the poor.

In the sixth year of the king's reign, his brother Hussein Bodu Doshimeyna Kilegefan passed away. He was survived by his son Mohamed whose mother was Aminath Manikfan.

On the night of Sunday 1 February 1767, after the hour-glass had been turned for the fifth time, Gazi Hassan Izzudeen went to his final rest. He had reigned for 7 years, four months and sixteen days.

When he died, he had a number of sons. The name of the eldest was Mohamed, aged 14. The next was called Ibrahim, eight years old. The youngest was Ali, aged four. The mother of these boys was Aminath Kabafan the daughter of Fenfushi Kaka Takurufan.

King Mohamed Giyasudeen Iskandar 1767
In accordance with the will of king Gazi Hassan, Mohamed Giyasudeen, king Ibrahim's son who had been prisoner of the Malabars, was made king. His royal name was King Mohamed Giyasudeen Iskandar.

He treated king Gazi Hassan's children in the same proper way he had been treated by the deceased king. But after a short while, it was rumoured the new king was to be killed and the deceased king's son Mohamed was to take his place. The people involved were rumoured to be the dead king's relatives, Ali Ranabandeyri Kilegefan, Vazir Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan and his brother Mohamed Mureed Takurufan and his brother Hussein Kaka Takurufan. Also mentioned were Ali Hakura Takurufan and Umar Handeygirin Takurufan.

King Giyasudeen ordered exile for all the alleged plotters. Chief treasurer Umar Saifudeen Handeygirin Takurufan was sent to Kadoodoo island in Kolumadulu (Thaa) atoll. The three sons of king Gazi Hassan and their mother, who had all been staying in Kudakiba palace, were transferred to Veyoge house. Diffushi Ibrahim was made chief treasurer. Then the dead king Gazi Hassan's wife and her three sons were exiled to Addu (Seenu) atoll. Gazi Hassan's paternal brother Ali Ranabandeyri Kilegefan was exiled to Malos island in Ari (Alifu) atoll.

Hura Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan was exiled to Mamakunudoo atoll. Hurai Mureed Mohamed Takurufan was exiled to Veymandu (on Thaa atoll). Hurai Hussein Kaka Takurufan was exiled to Huvadu atoll. Hussein Gadahamaidi Manikfan became health minister.

A big odi was sent with orders that Hussein Kaka Takurufan and Mohamed Mureed Takurufan were to be tortured and killed. When Hussein Kaka Takurufan heard about this, he got on board a loaded odi, overpowered the two guards and sailed to Veymandu island where he picked up Mohamed Mureed Takurufan and sailed away again. They stopped at Mamakunudoo and took aboard their elder brother Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan.

As they left Maldives, they wrote, 'We are not fleeing the country to betray the king. We dare not stay here for fear of death.' This was in a letter they composed and sent to the king.

After they had left Kolumadulu (Thaa) atoll on their journey north to Mamakunudoo, news of the escape reached Male'. Quickly, two odi were prepared, loaded with weapons and sent to find them. The odi sailed all over the country but they returned to Male' without success.

The fleeing men went to Ceylon and then on to Chandernagore (a French settlement 30 km above Calcutta). They met and talked to Monsieur Le Termellier and asked for protection from the governor, who gave his consent. Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan and Mohamed Mureed Takurufan died there. King Giyasudeen sent a small number of gifts and a letter to the governor of Ceylon and asked him to arrest the men and return them to Maldives. The governor ignored this request.

The king sent a group of military personnel to Malos island and put Ali Ranabandeyri in chains for a month. Some time later, slanderous words were found written on a piece of paper in a Male' street. Umar Mafaiy Kileygefan and his sons were accused, and Hussein Fadiaiy Takurufan, the eldest son of Umar Mafahaiy Takurufan was flogged and exiled to Veymandu island. Umar Mafahaiy Takurufan and his remaining children were exiled to Gan. Umar died there. Mohamed Takurufan, the son of Bodu Galu Mafahaiy Takurufan became the government secretary.

Ibrahim Baha-udeen passed away in the second year of the king's reign. He was married to a daughter of king Ibrahim, and died in his maternal grandmother's island of Kuredivaru (on Noonu atoll) around September 1768.

After the judge died, the position was given to Mohamed Muhibudeen Fandiyaru Takurufan who had been dismissed previously by king Gazi Hassan Izzudeen.

Aliraja attacks Male' 1769
In the second year of the king's reign, the Cannanore Aliraja prepared six sailing ships and nine odi for battle. They arrived on 5 April 1769 and anchored between Doonidoo and Vihamanafushi islands above Male'.

Again, men were landed on Hulule' and Funadoo islands. Guns were positioned on Funadoo and the firing began. Male' responded with its own guns. From the island's new fort, a cannon hit and killed one of the enemy and he was buried on Hulule'. The grave is still there.

In that battle, the Malabaris fired 597 shots at Male', but only two women were hit. One of these women was carrying a baby who also died. 245 shots were fired from Male' at the Malabaris. Almighty God protected the Maldivians. Apart from the death previously mentioned, it is not known if any more of the enemy died. After the battle, the Malabaris sailed back to Cannanore.

In the fifth year of the king's reign, it was rumoured that a group of supporters of Mohamed Manikfan, the son of Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan who was the brother of dead king Gazi Hassan Izzudeen, were planning to install this prince in the palace and capture the throne. They had agreed to set fire to a house near the palace and when the king came out, to use that moment to get inside the royal enclosure.

A gunpowder house close to the palace was set on fire. Seeing the flames, the king was about to leave the palace walls for a closer look. blaze. At that moment a person from among the plotters spoke to the king. 'Your highness, this is my good advice. Do not go out there.' The king heeded his words and did not emerge, and the fire was extinguished by others.

The group's plan to seize the throne now became common knowledge throughout the island. The king ordered the plotters to be found, beaten and exiled. They were hunted down, flogged, and sent to different islands.

Mohamed Manikfan the son of Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan, and Ahmed Kilegefan the son of Guraidoo Mohamed Manikfan, were not flogged. Ahmed Manikfan was sent to Madifushi island. Mohamed Manikfan the son of Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan was sent to Kalaidoo island on Laam atoll. On his way to exile in the odi, Mohamed fought with his guard and tied him up. He tried to leave Maldives in the odi but found he could not manage the vessel alone, so he made peace with the guard and untied him, and the odi sailed on to Kalaidoo.

The guard returned to Male' and reported the incident. Three strong men from the militia were despatched to Kalaidoo island where they viciously beat Mohamed Manikfan. About a year later, Mohamed was brought back to Male' and during the lifetime of his uncle he was allowed to stay in the palace. The king would not have allowed this to happen without satisfactory assurances.

In the sixth year of the king's reign, all the buildings and houses except one, were burnt in Himiti island (on Faafu atoll).

King Giyasudeen leaves for haj 1773
After seven years in power, the king prepared to make the haj. Aminath Kabafan the daughter of king Ibrahim, and her husband Ali Velana Manikfan the son of Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan and grandson of the martyr Addu Mohamed Kudabandeyri Takurufan, were left to administer the affairs of the crown.

The caravel belonging to Mohamed the son of Muscat Kalifan was hired, and on Friday 17 December 1773 they left for the haj. The king took along his wife and two ministers. One was Ali Hakura Manikfan, the son of Hussein Velana Takurufan and grandson of Fasmandoo Hassan Hakura Manikfan. Ali Hakura had been dismissed as a minister by king Gazi Hassan.

The other minister was Ali Doshimeyna Manikfan the son of Hassan Hakura Manikfan and grandson of Fasmandoo Hassan Hakura Takurufan. These two ministers were the sons of the two uncles of king Giyasudeen's mother.

The king left for haj after reigning 7 years and thirty-five days. On the fourth day after he left - the Monday night - a faction around Ali Velana Manikfan went into the palace and sat him on the royal throne and cunningly made him king.

Mohamed Manikfan rallies support in Male' and defeats Velana Manikfan 1773
When he discovered this, Mohamed Manikfan the son of Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan who was the brother of king Gazi Hassan, went to the Big Fort watch-tower with some supporters and readied the guns. At the time, Velana Manikfan and his supporters were in the palace. When he heard what Mohamed was doing, Velana Manikfan sent a group of people to the top of the New Fort and prepared many guns for battle.

The judge Mohamed Muhibudeen found out what was happening and went to each of the forts and prohibited any gunfire. The people in the Big Fort shouted, 'Ali Velana Manikfan has taken over the kingship. Anyone who supports the king who has gone abroad, come to this fort.' When a crowd of people gathered, Mohamed Manikfan addressed them:
'Acting against the instructions of king Giyasudeen, the couple supporting Ali Velana Manikfan have let him take over the throne. This would not have happened during the time when my noble brother rescued us, after the Malabars captured this country and it was broken, disintegrating and sinking. The monarchy of Maldives could not be given to anyone else - it belonged rightfully to the king himself. Gazi Hassan was prepared to fight and sacrifice his life in support of the monarchy. Wouldn't you follow a man like that?'

When they heard this question, the men answered:
'Yes! All of us, even the slaves, as long as we live we will never turn our backs on such a person. We all share your fate and will even give our lives for you.'

Hearing this, Mohamed Manikfan swore allegiance with these supporters against Velana Manikfan. He ordered them to remove the rebel couple from the palace and exile them from Male'. They were sent to Huliyandoo island on Laam atoll and died there.

The six surviving children of king Ibrahim were Aminath Kabafan, Fatmath Ranikilegefan, Mariyam Kabafan, king Giyasudeen, Sanfa Randi Kabafan and Aishath Kabafan. Ali Velana Manikfan's older brother, Hassan Famuladeyri Manikfan was put aboard an odi for exile in Madifushi island on Kolumadulu (Thaa) atoll. At the same time, Ahmed Manikfan the son of Guraidoo Mohamed Manikfan, who had been exiled previously to Madifushi island, was to be brought back to Male'. Later, Hassan Famuladeyri Manikfan was sent from Madifushi to Huvadu atoll where he died.

King Mohamed Shamsudeen Iskandar 1773-1774
After these people had been exiled, Mohamed Manikfan the son of Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan who was the brother of king Gazi Hassan, went with his followers into the inner palace. He was placed on the throne and named King Mohamed Shamsudeen Iskandar.

After the coronation, king Giyasudeen's residential palace to the south of the court was dismantled and everything removed. King Ibrahim's land holdings and waqf entitlements were also confiscated. Everything was taken from the children of king Ibrahim except the Diyamigili palace of their grandfather, king Mohamed Imadudeen.

European demand for Indian Ocean slaves
English, Dutch and French East India Companies needed slaves in their trading factories in the East Indies. They preferred to buy them independently from Arab traders from Arabia and east Africa.

The slaves were supplied from east Africa and Madagascar. The Dutch needed slaves for their Sumatran gold mines. The English needed them for plantations on St Helena, pepper plantations at Benkulen in Sumatra, and as domestic servants. The French used slaves on platations at Mauritius and Bourbon.

Pirates driven out of the Caribbean in the early 18th century went to Madagascar and sought to meet the slave needs of the Europeans.

Private Fortunes and Company Profits in the India trade in the 18th century
H. Furber, edited by R. Rocher
in Bombay Presidency in the Mid-Eighteenth Century
H. Furber 1965

Bodu Galu Mohamed Mafaiy Takurufan was exiled to Mativeri island (on Alifu atoll). Moosa Takurufan the son of Kalaidoo Hassan Naib Takurufan became the government secretary. Then Bodu Galu Mafaiy Takurufan was sent from Mativeri to Variyafushi island.

Mohamed the son of Kihadoo Ibrahim, was given the position of foreign minister. Umar Saifudeen Bodubandeyri Handeygirin Takurufan, who had been sent to Kadoodoo (on Thaa atoll) by king Giyasudeen, was brought back and given the position of chief treasurer. Ali Kaleygefan the son of Mohamed Famuladeyri Kaleygefan and grandson of Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan, was made health minister.

Education banned 1774
The belongings and books of the children of Kuradi Palace Fandiyaru Manikfan, and all the things belonging to their mother Mariyam Kabafan the daughter of king Ibrahim, were confiscated and they were exiled to Diyamigili island (on Thaa atoll). These people were also banned from reading or any form of education.

Ibrahim Manikfan, the son of Kateeb Ahmed Muhiyudeen and grandson of Hassan Tajudeen, was robbed of all his property and his mother Fatmath Ranikilegefan was robbed of everything she had too. Ibrahim Manikfan was sent to Daraboodoo island (on Faafu atoll).

For the first time in Maldives, this king ordered houses smashed and books taken from the hands of their owners. All were banned from learning, except those the king liked.

The person who had been chief treasurer, Diffushi Bodu Bandeyri Handeygirin Takurufan, was sent to his island. After about a year, when Umar Saifudeen Handeygirin Takurufan passed away, Diffushi Ibrahim Handeygirin Takurufan was brought back and given both the chief treasurer and handeygirin positions. When Diffushi Ibrahim passed away, Rasgeteemu Hassan Takuru became chief treasurer. He had helped the king take over the throne.

Many people were involved in this plot, including king Giyasudeen's time-keepers, who were also stripped of their property and exiled to the islands.

Meanwhile, those exiled by the former king were brought back from various islands and given positions. The son of king Gazi Hassan, king Mohamed Shamsudeen's uncle, was recalled along with the king's uncle Ali Ranabandeyri Kilegefan.

King Mohamed Muizzudeen Iskandar 1774-1778
Then Mohamed, the son of king Gazi Hassan was given the throne and named king Mohamed Muizzudeen Iskandar.

King Mohamed Shamsudeen abdicated, telling himself he was now only Mohamed Fashana Kilegefan and controlling his ambitions.

Murder of king Giyasudeen 1774
After some time, king Giyasudeen returned from haj and entered Maldives through Tiladunmati atoll. He heard what had happened in his absence and left Tiladunmati. The ship missed the best entry point and eventually sailed into Male' atoll near Guraidoo Viligilivaru on the southeastern side of south Male' atoll. He anchored there, and the captain Kurendoo Mohamed Kaleygefan and the chief mate Kudabandeyri Takurufan were given a letter for the king in Male'. Kudabandeyri's mother was Javanese, and he was also the father of Toddoo Handeygirin Takurufan.

These two men went to Male', requesting peace and a willingness to accept the verdict of holy God from the reigning king and Fashana Kilegefan. When the letter was read aloud, the king and Fashana did not like its contents and they sent soldiers to the ship in Male' harbour. The Muscat people and Maldivians on board were brought into the island.

Of the people who had made the haj, two ministers had died in Arabia and many others were also dead. Two wives of the king had contracted fatal smallpox. One was Aminath Kabafan the daughter of Sikka Manik, and the other was Mariyam Kabafan the daughter of Kudabandeyri Takurufan. Ibrahim, the eldest son of the king.

The crewmen of king Giyasudeen's ship were freed, and three of them who knew the king well were sent back to his ship. Giyasudeen accompanied them in their doani as it sailed out to sea where no one could see them. Then they tied weights onto Giyasudeen and threw him into the sea. He drowned. May Almighty God bless him. This happened at the beginning of the month of Shauban.

The men returned and told the people that the nobleman was now in Ranjehi palace. Later their lies were exposed. The people were shocked and when they began to talk about what had happened, they heard that Mohamed Fashana Kilegefan had asked the judge what to do with king Giyasudeen, and the judge had said to kill him. Afterwards, the judge swore he knew nothing about the matter. Almighty God knows how things happened.

The son of the martyred king was exiled to Fua Mulaku even though he was only a small child. He was held there until the reign of king Hassan Nooradeen, when he was allowed back and made health minister.

Hussein Kaka Takurufan and king Muizzudeen attempt to capture the Aliraja's ship 1778
After this, Hussein Kaka Takurufan, who had earlier gone to Chandernagore in India, received help from the Aliraja and arrived in a sailing ship off Male'. He anchored outside the range of the guns, then landed in Male' and met the king, who was thinking about ways to capture Hussein's ship.

The king sent a message to Aliraja's men on the ship: 'Pull up anchor and move your ship nearer the Big Fort.'
But they replied, 'Unless Kaka Takurufan is on board, we will not take the ship there.'

Then Kaka Takurufan sent a message to them and half the officers on board came to Male'. They were treated respectfully, kindly and with sincerity, and taken to a hall where tables and food were arranged to feed them. As they started eating, another group of men came into the hall and tied up their hands and feet. The men were separated, put on odi and sent to different islands.

Their leader was sent to Bileiydoo island (on Faafu atoll) and later sent to Huvadu atoll. He met two people from Minicoy who were living there and they talked together and became friends. In secret, they discussed a plan to go to India. One night they went into the island mosque and stole a sword. They found a man sleeping on a boat and hit him with the sword, cutting him open. Then they stole the vessel and sailed to India.

Let us return to the officers tied up at the dining tables...
The Male' guns were primed and firing towards the ship. The men on board knew that serious trouble had occurred. They slipped away and sailed to Tiladunmati atoll, burning property and kidnapping 450 people before returning to Cannanore. Some of these hostages returned after Aliraja's death, coming first to Male' and then on to their islands. Hussein Kaka Takurufan, the one who had been to Chandernagore, was made defence minister. He married Aishath Manikfan, the widow of the assassinated king.

During this year, an assortment of goods were salvaged from a French ship wrecked in Himiti island (on Faafu atoll). The people from the ship were brought to Male' and sent off to India.

In the same year, a small ship came to Diffushi island. Hedu Ismail Dandahelu Takurufan was sent to the ship and received goods worth 210 rupees. This was in the year 1778.

Mohamed Fashana Kilegefan died in the same year as King Muizzudeen who died on 24 September 1778. The reign of these two men had lasted about five years.

King Hassan Noordeen 1778-1799
Ali, the son of king Gazi Hassan Izzudeen, became the new king. His royal name was King Hassan Noordeen. After he came to the throne, his brother Ibrahim died. Some time later, the chief treasurer Rasgeteemu Hassan was removed from office and robbed of everything. He was exiled to Boli Mula island (on Meemu atoll). Ahmed Manikfan the son of Guraidoo Mohamed Manikfan became the new chief treasurer.

Then Hussein Doshimeyna Takurufan was robbed of everything and exiled to Meedoo island. The new defence minister was Moosa Hakura Takurufan, the son of Kalaidoo Hassan Naib Takurufan. Five days later, he too was robbed of everything and sent to Fonadoo island on Hadunmati (Laam) atoll. After two years he received permission to go to his father's island of Kalaidoo. Now the defence minister was Ahmed Bandeyri Takurufan, the son of Addu Mohamed.

Shipwrecks, 1783 and 1806
In 1783 the H.M.S. Cato had been lost with all hands on the Maldive Islands. She was a new ship of 50 guns, and on board was Vice-Admiral Sir Hyde Parker on his way to take up his appointment as commander-in-chief of the East Indies station. Reports of this disaster ha\d been filtering back for three years but there was, as yet, no firm news; however a wrecked vessel had been found near Male', and in a dispatch dated 13 July 1786 the Court of Directors ordered the authorities at Bombay to send a vessel to inspect this wreck.

Many years later in 1805, Bombay received a report from Capt. A.J. Dickson of the Fancy, Country Ship, giving gruesome accounts of the reported massacre of the ship's company, who had been saved from the wreck only to meet their deaths, it was stated, by being tied together, two by two, and cast into a hole which was then filled up by the natives with stone and earth. This was stated to have been in retaliation for the rape of a 'Moor girl'.

In 1806, a French vessel was wrecked in Maldives, whose captain was obliged to redeem his liberty and that of his family and crew by the sacrifice of his wife's chastity to the sultan, one of whose privileges is the property of all shipwrecked mariners.

'Early British Interest in the Chagos archipelago and the Maldive Islands'
H.T. Fry 1967
in Mariner's Mirror Vol.53 1967

Afterwards Hussein Doshimeyna Takurufan was brought back to Male' and made the defence minister again. He was treated as a member of the court. When Guraidoo Ahmed Bodubandeyri Manikfan died, the previously exiled Rasgeteemu Hassan was brought back to Male' and given the position of chief treasurer and officially titled as chief minister.

On Wednesday 10 August 1785, the royal judge Gazi Mohamed Muhibudeen passed away. Ibrahim Manikfan was brought back to Male' and made the new judge. He was the son of Kateeb Ahmed Muhiyudeen and had been exiled to Gan island. The aristocrats and ministers did not agree with this, and the judge position was then given to Moosa Naib Takurufan the son of Landoo Ali. Moosa was a student of Mohamed Muhibudeen Fandiyaru Takurufan. When he died, Moosa was married to his daughter. He now became known as Moosa Najmudeen.

Inheritance law judgment 1785
When Mohamed Muhibudeen Fandiyaru Takurufan died, chief judge Moosa Najmudeen administered the estate. He gave nothing to the family members with rightful inheritance claims over the property and goods, such as the sons of Ibrahim Baha-udeen, the grandsons of Mohamed Shamsudeen Fandiyaru Kaleygefan and great-grandsons of Hassan Tajudeen. The judge gave the inheritance to others.

After this incident, others also ignored inheritance claims and gave their property away as they saw fit, or donated their property to mosques as waqf.

Later, Hakura Takurufan, the son of Dandahelu Bandeyri Takurufan, was made the chief treasurer. Moosa Najmudeen remained as judge. He held office until a trial involving two people where the verdict gave the property to the plaintiff. The defendant complained to the aristocrats and the judge was removed and exiled to Landoo island.

Ibrahim, the 37 year old son of Ahmed Muhiyudeen Kateeb Manikfan, became the new chief judge on Thursday 26 July 1787. He was selected because of his youth and lack of experience, and was given the name Gazi Ibrahim Sirajudeen.

King Noordeen leaves for haj 1789
The king decided to go to haj and made preparations for the journey. His official duties and the care of his child were put in the hands of Ahmed Doshimeyna Takurufan, and a sailing ship and caravel were prepared for travel.

It was decided that Hussein Doshimeyna Kilegefan and Ibrahim Sirajudeen would accompany the king. Mohamed Kateeb Bodu Naib Takurufan was put in charge of trials and other court matters and on Saturday 27 December 1788, the king left Male'. He went to Rasdoo island and stayed there for six days, and then sailed to the town of Mocha in Yemen.

While they were there, an odi belonging to Ma-eboodoo Gada Hamadi Kaleygefan also sailed to Arabia with Maldivian pilgrims. The ruler of Mocha was a man named Mohamed Surooru, and the chief judge was Gazi Ismail. These two gentlemen visited the king's ship and wanted the king to visit their town. They were told that the king had sworn an oath not to visit anywhere else in Arabia before seeing Mecca. After the men left, the ship embarked for the port of Hudayda. In this port, the king hired a man called Suleiman and then sailed to the port of Jidda where there was a Maldive trade representative called Sarhan.

Sarhan informed Shareef Galib the chief of Mecca about the arrival of the Maldivians, and rented a house in Mecca for them. Shareef Galib was the son of Shareef Musa-id and the grandson of Shareef Masood. After Mecca, the Maldivians visited Medina and stayed there for five days before returning to Jidda.

The king sent a letter to Shareef Galib saying that his Maldivian ministers had been asking him whether they needed to wait for the haj season. 'Please do as you wish,' Shareef Galib replied.

The Maldivians tried to get written permission to embark but could not obtain it in Jidda. On 31 May 1789, they boarded the ship and departed without a permit, just as the Shareef of Mecca arrived in Jidda. The Maldivian king would not get off the ship to meet him and the king's vessel and the caravel left Jidda for the port of Mocha. Meanwhile, the Maldivians in Ma-eboodoo Gadahamadi Kaleygefan's odi decided to stay at Jidda until the haj season.

The king's two vessels sailed to Mocha and then on to Maldives. The caravel captained by Vilufushi Ahmed now carried the king, and it entered the country through Malosmadulu atoll on 26 August. The king arrived back in Male' on 5 September 1789. The other ship ended up in Galle (Sri Lanka).

After king returned, some people were sent into exile. Among them was Mohamed Dahara Takurufan, who was in king Giyasudeen's entourage and had been made government secretary. Other men and women were also exiled to the islands. They were people who had conspired to put king Giyasudeen's son on the throne. He had been exiled to Fua Mulaku.

Meedoo Kateeb Takurufan was made a commander of the militia. He was named Ibrahim Dahara Takurufan and became chief of Mafannu ward in Male'. Moosa Najmudeen, who had been exiled to Landoo island, was brought back to Male' and treated well, but he was not made chief judge at that time.

Judge Ibrahim Sirajudeen tortured and exiled 1792
Things went smoothly for some time and then a person who had accompanied the king to Arabia, Ibrahim Sirajudeen Fandiyaru Manikfan, was rumoured to be conspiring with others to capture the throne. The king believed it and Ibrahim Sirajudeen was beaten and tortured and exiled to Kadu Huludoo in Huvadu atoll. His mother Fatmath Rani Kilegefan was sent away with him. The brutal beating left Ibrahim with 470 cuts on his body. These included bleeding injuries and cuts to the muscle, and to the tissue between muscles and bones, and other cuts deep to the bone.

Also exiled with this mother and son, was Ahmed Manikfan the son of Mecca Seedi, grandson of Kuda Fandiyaru Kaleygefan and great-grandson of Hassan Tajudeen. Ahmed's two sons were also exiled, along with others.

Moosa Najmudeen was made the chief judge on 28 June 1792, and the people of Huvadu were ordered not to give any gifts to the exiled judge, Ibrahim Sirajudeen. They were forbidden to give him even a betel leaf, and he was not allowed a house or any other assistance. The people were told not to ask him for any religious instruction, nor even learn a maulood from him.

The legal secretary position was taken away from Ismail Naib Takurufan, and given to Ali the son of Maradoo Ibrahim. Then the children of Ibrahim Baha-udeen Fandiyaru Manikfan, and their mother Mariyam Kabafan were sent away to Diyamigili island (on Thaa atoll). These children were the grandsons of Mohamed Shamsudeen Fandiyaru Kaleygefan, and great-grandsons of Hassan Tajudeen. After nine months, Fatmath Rani Kilegefan (who was mentioned before) and her son, the Fandiyaru Manikfan, were allowed to go to Gan island in Hadunmati (Laam) atoll. While staying there, Fatmath Rani Kilegefan died. She was buried on the eastern side of the Gan Friday mosque. The exiled judge's grandfather had come from that island. Later Mariyam Kabafan died in Diyamigili.

In Male', a huge ship was built at Henveiru ward.

Then the chief judge Moosa Najmudeen died on Thursday night 15 January 1795. Ismail Naib Takurufan the son of Bandara Naib Tuladoo Ibrahim was made legal secretary, and Mohamed the son of Salim was made chief treasurer. Prior to that, he had been legal secretary.

Bodubandeyri Mohamed Handeygirin Takurufan and Mohamed Bodu Naib Takurufan, the son of Salim, were both put in charge of courts and verdicts.

Some time later, Muguree Moosa Kateeb was dismissed from his kateeb post. To hide his humiliation, the ex-kateeb distributed his own weight in sweet sticky rice at Medu Ziyaraiy (the central tomb) in Male'.

Ali Naib Takurufan the son of Maradoo Ibrahim retained his legal secretary position.

The ship at Henveiru was completed and made ready to sail. It brought Ibrahim Sirajudeen Fandiyaru Manikfan and his relatives back from exile, along with others including Moosa Doshimeyna Takurufan the son of Kalaidoo Naib Hassan Takurufan. Their houses were returned to them.

Surat treasure ship wrecked on Huvadu atoll
Zanzibar and the sultans of Oman
In 1791 the Sultanate of Muscat on the Arab peninsula in the Persian Gulf experienced turmoil when Sultan Ahmed seized control from his brother Imam Said. Said's clan relocated to Zanzibar and maintained close shipping links with Muscat.

Trade and clove plantations were their main source of income, along with cowrie shells collected from Kilaw, Zanzibar and Lammu and exported to Calcutta and the Persian Gulf.

By the 1840s, the ivory trade had grown, and the sultan of Zanzibar signed commercial treaties and received 5% of all customs duties trading with the Americans, British and French. Customs revenues rose from around $40,000 in 1807-8 to $200,000 in 1862.

The Busaidi sultans were never all-powerful. Other clans had strong groupings in the major towns and Oman. The Mazrui, Mandhry, Harthi and Barwani had ties predating Busaidi rule. Most owned plantations and numerous slaves. Slave armies could threaten the sultan's rule. Ostentation and any sign of conspicuous consumption had to be eschewed out of deference to the sultan's Omani subjects' Ibadi puritanism. The sultan was accessible to all and was often addressed as an equal.

The entire government of Zanzibar and the coast under the Busaidi rested on the personal reputation of each sultan for evenhandedness in dealing with his subjects and in bringing them wealth.

It was principally the judicious application of his personal wealth in the form of largess, which kept the sultan's subjects loyal to him; e.g. with individual stipends, bribes, presents, gifts and entertainments, or sometimes whole tribes were paid for their loyalty. Governors enriched themselves with powers of intervention in quarrels, imprisonment and seizure of property.

Horn and Crescent – Cultural change and traditional Islam on the East African coast, 1800-1900
R.L. Pouwels 1987

Later, a ship belonging to men from Surat was travelling to its destination when they were captured by Frenchmen from Mauritius on the high seas. Under French command, the vessel was wrecked on Huvadu atoll. There were a few people from Surat in the ship and it was heavily laden with huge amounts of gold, silver coins and jewellery. After Maldivians realised the immense value of the ship's cargo, it was confiscated from the Frenchmen. The treasure was considered the rightful property of the people of Maldives. They even distributed some of it to foreigners, including the Surat people who were then sent to India.

All the fittings and utensils from the wrecked ship were brought to Male' and put aboard the ship that the king was building. Another ship was captured, and preparations were made for these two ships to take people to the haj.

King Mohamed Mueenudeen appointed by king Hassan Noordeen as he leaves for haj 1799
The king's son Mohamed was put in charge of royal affairs and given the name of Sultan Mohamed Mueenudeen. The king embarked on Thursday 24 January 1799. As he was leaving, he appointed the previously dismissed Moosa Kateeb Takurufan as the new judge. He became Gazi Moosa Muhiyudeen on 7 February 1799.

Then Moosa Dahara Manikfan, the elder brother of Mohamed Fashana Kilegefan, who had been made chief treasurer, was given the title of Handeygirin title and gonged in a koli ritual.

Mohamed Takurufan, the son of Bodu Galu Ali, was made commander of the armed forces.

The dispute with Shareef Galib of Mecca 1799
The king on his way to haj passed through the Bab el Mandeb (entrance to the Red Sea from the Arabian Sea) on 19 February, and next day arrived at Hudayda. The Maldivians traded for a while, and prepared to leave for Jidda on 9 March. The people of Hudayda said it was not advisable for the Maldive king to sail there with so much wealth. 'Shareef Galib might rob you of your possessions,' they warned. But the king ignored this advice and sailed north from Hudayda.

He landed at Jidda on 6 April, and on Friday 12 April he set off for Mecca. Meanwhile, Shareef Galib had taken another road to Jidda and because of this, the two men did not meet.

At Mecca, the Maldive king met the vazir of the district and the keeper of the Kaba and other aaghaawathun men. They all gathered and sat down on the king's carpet and he asked them to open the Kaba. The vazir and the Kaba's chief caretaker replied that without Shareef Galib's permission they could not open the Kaba, and he had gone to Jidda.

While they were discussing the matter, the vazir's older brother came in and sat on the carpet and said he would open the Kaba if he was given a thousand riyal. The Maldive king became furious and ordered the men beside him to take the older brother outside and beat him. 'Nothing will be given to anyone except the Kaba's chief caretaker, and the khoajaa nobleman,' he said. The man was removed and beaten.

Then the king said, 'Even if you open the Kaba, Shareef Galib would not care. The Kaba is the holy house of Allah and does not belong to anybody. All moslems are equal before the holy house.'

The Maldive king ordered them to open it and the caretaker obeyed. The king and the people accompanying him went into the holy house. This all occurred on Sunday night 14 April 1799. A hundred riyal was given to the chief caretaker, and the other khoajaa men received the same amount. Afterwards, some Maldivians stayed with the king, and others returned to Jidda.

In Jidda, Shareef Galib wrote a letter to the Maldive king and sent it to Mecca. His letter explained that due to the immense number of infidels at the port of Jidda, he would not be able to return to Mecca even for the haj season. 'There are many infidels in Jidda, and for this reason I request that your highness give us five guns from your ship to put on the tower of Jidda. After the haj, we will return the guns.'

The king read the letter, and then said to Mohamed Handeygirin Takurufan, 'Write a letter to Ali, the ship's master, and tell him to give Shareef Galib five cannon from my ship.'

When the king said this, one of his companions Hussein, the son of Gan Ibrahim, interrupted. 'All your highness' property, the whole lot, will be taken. This is how they rob you! Those guns will not be returned. When they are gone, other things will be stolen in the same way.'

The king tended to agree with him and told the Meccan vazir who brought the letter that he would not hand over the guns. 'You are trying to trick me and take all our goods,' he said. 'All the Arabs say that Shareef Galib will keep stealing their property until the sun is extinguished. In what book is it written that people's goods can be taken away? You go and tell that to Shareef Galib.'

The vazir passed on the message to the ruler of Mecca, and Shareef Galib said, 'Go and tell this to that king: 'His Highness is saying bad things about me even though I am so concerned about the immense number of infidels here that I cannot even come to Mecca for the haj. I have requested five guns to mount on the Jidda fort because of the shortage of cannon, and because your highness is a moslem king. The two holy places of Mecca and Medina are in my care, but it seems your highness' rank is loftier than mine. After your arrival here, it seems this country has become yours. Nothing will happen in any way contrary to your wishes. Since this is the situation, it is inappropriate for you to say unpleasant things to me. If I wanted to rob someone, I would rob my own people. All kings take things from their own people. If I spoke like you, then I would be superior to your highness.'

It was reported that Shareef Galib went aboard the king's ship and checked what was there. Then he went away and sent armed soldiers back to the ship. Shareef Galib's men grabbed Kazin Ali, and told him to reveal all the hiding places on the ship, but he refused. He was taken into a room and a sharp sword was placed against his neck. Thinking he was about to be beheaded, Ali started screaming and revealed all the king's hiding places where he had stored precious stones and silver ornaments. Taking everything including the five guns, Shareef Galib's men did not leave a single rupee behind.

They also took three men - Kazin Ali, Mohamed Meerubahuru, and the ship's navigator. Both Ali and Meerubahuru were kept in jail for three days and then released.

Some time later, Shareef Galib sent his vazir to king Hassan Noordeen.
'The Arabs in Mecca and Jidda are saying a Surat ship called Saihu Alam was wrecked in Maldives. In that ship were 400,000 of our riyal,' said the Meccan vazir. 'All that treasure was under your control. Therefore all the goods you brought are ours, and you should pay again for what you have bought.'
'Everything has been taken away by you,' replied king Hassan. 'There is nothing left.'
'That cannot be so,' said the vazir. 'You have more here. Do you think you can talk your way out of this? In the same way we took things from the ship, we can take more from you. What can you do about it?'
The king became angry and said, 'Are you suggesting I'm lying? Whatever I still have, I would not hand it over as long as I have a sword in my hand. You people can come back today and fight, now get out of here!'

The vazir would not leave, so the king ordered his men to drag him outside. He went away.

The king and Maldivians performed the haj and visited Medina. Then they prepared to travel from Mecca to Jidda but after some Maldivians had gone, Shareef Galib ordered the king to be prevented from travelling. The people who had already left were forced to return to Mecca with their camels.

King Hassan Noordeen dies at Jidda 1799
Later, the king was taken ill with small-pox and after a payment of 10,000 riyal, permission was given to leave Mecca and he went quickly to Jidda. King Hassan got into the ship's small boat and was heading to his vessel when he was stopped by Jidda officials because of his illness. The Maldive king died on Saturday night, 1 June 1799.

Shareef Galib seized the king's two ships and everything they contained, including all the belongings of other people travelling with the Maldivians, and all the books that had been brought from Maldives.

Then Bodubandeyri Mohamed Handeygirin Takurufan died, along with many of the other pilgrims. Among the dead were the king's mother Aminath Manikfan, Mohamed Mabandeyri Takurufan, and the navigator Hussein Kaleyfan.

Shareef Galib gave the Maldivians a dhow, which he had stolen from somebody else. The Maldivians sailed off in this vessel and went to a port called Qunfudah in Arabia, southeast of Jidda. Ali, the king's son, died there.

The king's daughter and Kazin Ali died in Kamaran (a Yemeni island north of Hudaydah).

When the Maldivians reached Hudaydah, they abandoned the dhow. A person in Hudaydah, called Haizar, took them in another dhow to Sayhuth (a port in eastern Yemen) where the boat was wrecked. From there, they travelled in the same type of dhow to Muscat.

A person in another dhow took them from Sahura Mukalla (a port in Yemen) and they arrived back in Male' on 13 December 1799.

Of the 300 people who left, only 70 returned. Those who survived included the king's son Abdul Majeed, the king's daughter Fatmath, Mohamed Manik the son of Ahmed Doshimeyna Takurufan, and Shirazi Mohamed Fadiyaiy Takurufan. Two hundred and thirty men and women died on that journey.

During the reign of king Hassan Noordeen the following Maldive islands were abandoned:
From Huvadu atoll - Kashi Huludoo, Feydoo, and Futte-u islands
Nilande atoll - Velavaru island
Male' atoll - Baros island
Malosmadulu atoll - Finolhos island
Tiladunmati atoll - Vagaru island.

King Hassan also erected a hall for Friday prayer in Giravaru island.

When news of the king's death reached Male', disputes increased and there were fights between some individuals. The chief treasurer, Moosa Handeygirin Manikfan was exiled to Hanghaameedoo island (on Alifu atoll). Ahmed Kudabandeyri Manikfan was exiled to Fonadoo island in Hadunmati atoll. Moosa Doshimeyna Takurufan was dimissed and exiled to Kalaidoo island. He died there. Ahmed Shah Bandar Velana Takurufan was sent to Boli Mulah island on Mulaku (Meemu) atoll.

The chief treasurer position was given to Moosa Hakura Takurufan, the maternal brother of the mother of king Mohamed Mueenudeen. He was named Moosa Handeygirin Takurufan. Then Ahmed Doshimeyna Takurufan died and the defence minister position went to his son Mohamed Manik, now called Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan.

About two years later, Haji Moosa Handeygirin Takurufan was dismissed and Haji Mohamed Fadivaiy Takurufan became the new chief treasurer. He was named Mohamed Handeygirin Takurufan. After a further two years, the previously exiled Moosa Handeygirin Manikfan was recalled and made the home minister.

Some time later, Moosa Muhiyudeen Fandiyaru Manikfan passed away. Ibrahim Sirajudeen Fandiyaru Manikfan, who was exiled during the reign of king Hassan Noordeen, returned on Sunday 13 April 1806 and was given the position of chief judge. Moosa Handeygirin Manikfan was dismissed as home minister and made minister of public works. He was named Hakura Manikfan. The previously mentioned Haji Moosa was made home minister and named Moosa Handeygirin Takurufan.

Earthquakes 1815
At midday on Thursday 31 August 1815, a loud noise was heard in Tiladunmati (Haa Alif and Haa Daal) atoll and as far south as Feevah island in Shaviyani atoll. All the islands shook vigorously, but after a short while, the shaking subsided. Three days later, between the magrib and isha prayer-times (6 p.m. - 7.30 p.m.), there was an even louder noise was heard and another strong earthquake. The noise lasted for about an hour. In the islands, lamps in the houses nearly fell over and people were very frightened. They cried, screamed and shouted, and recited thasbah thahuleel. Slowly, everything calmed down.

Moosa Handeygirin Takurufan passed away around December 1816. Shirazi Mohamed Takurufan became both chief treasurer and home minister. At the time, he was government secretary. About a year before, the rundown Eid mosque had been rebuilt. The king also built a Friday mosque in Eydafushi island (on Baa atoll).

The following islands were abandoned during king Mohamed Mueenudeen's reign:
Huvadu atoll – Mavarula, Migoodoo, Diyanigili, Futta, and Kuramati islands.
Addu atoll – Hankede island.
Hadunmati atoll – Fushi island.
Malosmadulu atoll – Ugoofaru and Kandoo islands.
Male' atoll – Viligilivaru island.

During his reign, Maldivians inhabited two hundred and two islands:
Male' atoll - 9 islands.
Fadipolu atoll - 4 islands.
Miladunmadulu atoll - 31 islands.
Malosmadulu atoll - 35 islands.
Tiladunmati atoll - 30 islands.
Felide atoll - 3 islands.
Ari atoll - 13 islands.
Mulaku atoll - 8 islands.
Nilande atoll - 14 islands.
Kolumadulu atoll - 13 islands.
Hadunmati atoll - 12 islands.
Huvadu atoll - 23 islands.
Fua Mulah atoll (a single island).
Addu atoll - 6 islands.

Bottles from English shipwreck 1819
On 24 July 1819, an English ship was wrecked on Mamakunudoo atoll. The islanders from there brought people from the ship to Male' on 4 August. They were sent to the India. Many things were retrieved from the ship, including 15,000 kg. of cloves and 12,000 empty bottles. These things were distributed to the military and aristocrats. Each member of the military received four cups of cloves and one empty bottle. Each minister and the judge received 28 cups of cloves and eight bottles.

On Monday 11 October 1819, a strong wind blew from the west, and in Male' many trees and plants were destroyed. In the palace grounds, ten houses were blown apart. This was on the 16th day of meezaan.

Afterwards, everything became scarce and expensive in the islands. There was famine and people ate leaves and plants.

At that time, prices were as follows:
16 kg. of rice - 16 cups of cowrie shells
10 kg. of sugar - 16 cups of cowrie shells
1 coconut - 1 lari.

These prices continued until 1826. In that year, they rose even further:
9 kg. of rice - 16 cups of cowrie shells
6 kg. of sugar - 16 cups of cowrie shells
60 coconuts - 16 cups of cowrie shells. Previously, only coconuts for funeral/wake ceremonies had been bought in this way.

On Wednesday 16 August 1820, Abdul Majeed, the son of king Hassan Noordeen, died.

Cyclone 1821
On the night of Saturday 8 December 1821, an extremely strong storm hit the islands from Tiladunmati to Miladunmadulu atolls. The waves were very high. More than 30 odi were lost or damaged, and many people aboard them were killed.

The islands damaged in the storm were:
Hirubadoo, Migoodoo, Makadoodoo, Milandoo, Narudoo, Ribudoo, Kurendoo, Nalandoo, Madidoo, Feydoo, Feevah, Foakaidoo, Neyo, Noomara, Mavaidoo, Goidoo, Kaditeemu, Kakai Ariyadoo, Vaikaradoo, Neykurendoo, Katalafushi, Nelaidoo, Navaidoo, Hirinaidoo, Muiri, Kuribi, Keylakunu, Ma Kumundoo, Kuluduffushi, Kuburudoo, Nolivaramu, and Hirimaradoo.

On Sunday 15 December 1822, Haji Mohamed, the son of Addu Ahmed Doshimeyna Takurufan, passed away and his position was given to Moosa Hakura Manikfan, the son of Ali.

Moosa's former position was given to Hussein Famuladeyri Takurufan the son of Mohamed Hakura Takurufan. These things took place on Sunday 29 December.

The elder son of king Mohamed Mueenudeen went to Friday prayer for the first time on Friday 23 April 1824. To celebrate the event, the people of Henveiru ward donated 50 rupees as a gift.

On Friday 21 May, the royal prince went to Lonu Ziyaraiy Kolu, to the tomb of the Ethiopian holyman. To mark this occasion, the people of Henveiru gifted 1600 cups of cowrie shells and 50 rupees. The Galolu people gave 800 cups of cowries and 50 rupees.

Two days later, the prince went to Mafannu ward to the tomb of king Ali, and the people of Mafannu donated 1600 cups of cowrie shells and 50 rupees. The people of Machangoli ward gave 800 cups of cowrie and 50 rupees.

[Beginning of a crossed-off section, allegedly marked for removal by Mohamed Ameen, Maldive chief minister and first president.]

Then things became difficult for the judge. The problem began in the form of an odi seeking permission to go to Bengal. The usual gift of four rupees, for the yearly odi launching permit, went to the finance office, but the document was refused, and the four rupees were sent to the justice office.

Now considered to be under the control of the justice office, the odi was sent off with 600 kg. of rice to settle a conflict in Mamakunudoo atoll over fish sold to Tiladunmati atoll.

The chief treasurer complained to the king, 'The chief judge has more rice in his house than we do. The judge is selling it too cheaply, and this year he has made a lot of profit.'

The king listened and agreed with him. The two sons of the judge, who had been given the kateeb positions in Male' and Turakunu island, had their island taken away. For a long time, they received no replacement. Prior to this, a kateeb postion meant control of two islands, and Turakunu was one of those islands. The judge and his two sons were compensated for the loss of the island by the caretaker there. He cut down seven logs of sea trumpet timber and sent them to Male'. The island was taken away from the kateeb around July 1825. Some time later, the two brothers were given Mafilafushi island on Laviyani atoll.

[Here, the crossed-off lines are themselves crossed-off. This is also the end of the originally crossed-off section.]

Then an odi was built in Male'. Galolu and Henveiru wards were ordered to provide 5,680 cups of cowrie shells, sixty-five rupees and sixty-three pots with capacity for twelve kilos of rice. In each of these pots, four pounds of sugar was to be placed.

At that time, prices were as follows:
10 kg. of rice – 16 cups of cowrie shells
6 lb. of jaggery sugar – 16 cups of cowrie shells

Then the wards of Mafannu and Machangoli were required to supply 6000 cups of cowrie shells and twenty-four of the twelve kilo sized pots, filled with sugar.

Famine in Maldives 1825
The government banned all trading by private people in the islands and set its own prices:
3 cups of rice – 16 fish
6 kg. of rice – 16 cups of cowrie shells

This was how the government traded, while making it illegal for anyone else. There was serious starvation on the islands. If anyone sold anything cheaper, they were punished and they did not sell a second time. Many people starved to death this year (1825). The situation was so bad that people chopped down the coconut palms, ate the tops and destroyed the islands.

There was no relief from famine until 1826. Odi came from India that year. Two ships from Bombay arrived and sold one kilo of rice for five large fish, or eight or ten small fish.

The rice prices for the people of Maldives were:
12 kg. of light-coloured rice – 16 cups of cowrie shells
15 kg. of dark rice – 16 cups of cowrie shells
36 coconuts – 16 cups of cowrie shells
10 kg. of rice – 1 kg. of coconut oil
2 areca nuts – 1 lari
200-300 nuts – 16 cups of cowrie shells
Three to four yards of white cloth – 16 cups of cowrie shells.

Male' people protest against mass exile for sexual relationship offences
Later, some men in Male' became friendly with the wife of judge Ibrahim Sirajudeen. They talked and presented raivaru to her. His wife accepted the written raivaru and socialised with these people. They were allowed into her sleeping quarters. She continued this behaviour until a man was arrested. He confessed and received a sentence of 30 lashes with the cane, and exile. A minister tried to help him when he was aboard the odi. This was unacceptable. The man was still exiled, although the atoll chief received instructions to feed him.

Later, another group of people were caught for similar offences. The aristocrats of the island, and the minister who had tried to intervene before, made a plea for more tolerance.
'If we exile so many people,' they said, 'it will be difficult to launch and ground the odi! And regarding the flogging of the people who have now been caught; it should be the prerogative of the husband.'

So nothing was done about sexual behaviour, and the judge lost all influence because of people's lack of support for religion.

New laws regarding clothing and jewellery 1827
On Saturday 27 February 1827, the government sent six men and others to the house of the judge, where they announced:
'Every man or woman who has a king for a grandfather may wear a sash and a falakat handkerchief; the woman may wear precious stone bangles and a gold and silver embroidered head-scarf. The children may wear havadukula bangles. This is now to be permitted.'

Four members of the military were each given a letter and sent around the island. There was a separate letter for each of the four classes – the aristocracy, ministers, armed forces and commoners:
Women were banned from wearing twelve kinds of silk cloth, and any mix of silk and cotton was also banned;
For some people, all kinds of silk clothing were prohibited;
People with pierced ears were forbidden from wearing earrings. Since washing and bathing without jewellery, especially for women, left bathers vulnerable to jinni, many people had difficulty washing so they were given permission to wear them again;
and ivory, fish tooth and deer horn were prohibited from use as weaving bobbins.

Earlier, on 2 February 1827, the second son of king Mohamed Mueeundeen went to Friday prayer. The people of Henveiru ward donated 1600 cups of cowrie shells, plus 50 rupees and 2,000 lari.

On 19 April, the same son went to the Lonu Ziyaraiy Kolu and visited the tomb of the Ethiopian holyman. In keeping with tradition, the people of Galolu and Henveiru wards made donations.

On 2 October 1827, three saintly noblemen were exiled to Huvadu atoll. Their three slaves were exiled to Nilande (Faafu and Daalu) atoll. Here is the story of how these people came to be exiled:
They had a fight with the son of a minister. When people gathered and asked what they were trying to do, they said they were trying to cut the young boy's head off! On that particular day, the fight calmed down but later they picked a fight with a negro from the military and threatened to do exactly the same thing. They also had trouble with Male's aristocracy. When the king learnt what was happening, he ordered them exiled.

Harbour dredging with mass labour 1827
On Thursday 1 November 1827, the digging of the harbour began and work continued for thirty-four days. It was done by military personnel and non-Male' workers - a total of 782 people. Food and drink for the workforce was provided by the people who controlled uninhabited islands and atolls.

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